International Journal of Anatomy and Research

Editor-in-Chief: Dr. Ravindra Kumar Boddeti
ISSN: (Print)2321-8967 (Online) 2321-4287

Frequency: Quarterly

Language: English

Open Access Peer-reviewed journal

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Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 944
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    A Cost-Effective Novel Method of Preparing Plastinated Specimens of Brain
    (IMD Research Publications, 2023-06) Vijayakumar, K.; Ambike, Mandar; Dixit, Daksha
    The human bodies and organs have traditionally been preserved using formalin solution, although it irritates the eyes, nose and throat. Plastination is an unique and expensive method for preserving biological samples that can be used in teaching and research. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to prepare a costeffective solution using thermocol to plastinate the brain specimens as a supplement for teaching and research. Two human brains were used in this pilot research project. According to standard procedures, the brains were first fixed in 10% formaldehyde, sectioned horizontally, sagittally and coronally dehydrated in acetone, and then immersed in the plastination solution at room temperature and pressure. Then the specimens were airdried at room temperature. A team of 62 Anatomists and Pathologists assessed the quality of the specimens using a self-developed grading scale. The grading was provided based on the specimens’ clarity, stability, aesthetic look, colour and smell. Statistical analyses was performed using SPSS software, Kruskal Wallis test showed that the lowest mean score was 4.04 provided for colour and highest mean score was 5 provided for the smell with a statistically significant p<0.001. Thus our plastinated specimens were of good quality, durable and handlefriendly. Our study demonstrated that the cost-effective plastination solution (CEPS) procedure is an inexpensive and efficient way to create plastinated specimens that are appropriate for teaching neuroanatomy.
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    To Identify the Dangerous Length of External Laryngeal Nerve In Relation to Thyroid Pole In Cadaveric Thyroid Glands
    (IMD Research Publications, 2023-06) Mariam, Anthony Ammal Soosai; Rao, N. Shakuntala; Srinivasan, Ramamurthi Kadathur; Solaiappan, Kamalakannan
    Introduction: The external laryngeal nerve passes through the “space of Reeve” cricothyroid space. It has also been described as lying in the Joll’s triangle. It is often inadvertently neglected during thyroid surgeries. It has been named after a singer who lost her voice after a thyroid surgery, as the “nerve of Galli Curci” Aim: To identify the dangerous length of the external laryngeal nerve in relation to the thyroid pole. Material and Methods: Fifty laryngeal nerves were dissected using conventional method of dissection, in twentyfive embalmed cadavers used for teaching purpose at Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Madurantakam. The observations were noted and photographs taken. The course and relations were carefully noted. Results: 38 specimens (76%) had the superior laryngeal nerve measuring 4cm. in 8 specimens (16%) it was 3.5 cm and in 04 specimens (8%) it measured 3.8 cm. It was observed that the external laryngeal nerve crossed the superior thyroid pole at less than 1cm only in three (6%) of the fifty nerves. Conclusions: The critical length of the nerve would be dangerous if the nerve crosses the superior thyroid pedicle close to thyroid pole at less than 1 cm. The consequences of neglecting the critical length would injure the nerve and cause dysphonia or raspy voice.
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    Resin cast in situ: A technique to demonstrate the vasculature of the Nervous system: In Goat Model
    (IMD Research Publications, 2023-06) B, Ravindra Kumar; Thyagaraju, K; Velichety, Subhadra Devi
    Background: As Anatomical education advances very rapidly, and at the same time, there is huge demand and scarcity of true biological models, mainly brain tissue. In this scenario, in 1977, Guther Von Hagens worked on plastics and experimented voraciously on diffusing various plastics into large specimens and ultimately succeeded and coined the term “Plastination”. This technique is very popular in Western countries as the latter greatly minimizes the health hazards due to formalin exposure while dealing with biological tissue. In continuation with the advancement of expensive plastination to cost-effective resin casting, especially studies over the complex structures like the brain and spinal cord. In This study, we emphasize the cost-effective Resin cast-insitu method to demonstrate the vasculature of the brain and spinal cord. Materials and Methods: After obtaining the prior permission, we collected the Five (5) Goat heads from the slaughterhouse. Following the standard dissection procedure over the neck region, identified and canulated the major neck vessels. Through the vessels normal saline water, formalin, and pigmented resin were administered and preserved the goat head using routine preservation technique. After 36 to 48 hours, the routine dissection was scheduled to expose the brain and upper spinal cord segments, and finding were captured and recorded. Results and Discussion: The specimens show good penetration of dye in the artery and veins, and it’s easy to appreciate and study the vasculature of the brain and upper spinal cord segments, including the Bastons plexus of veins. Conclusion: In comparison with regular silicon casting, resin casting is very cost-effective and long-lasting, with good penetration of the resin substance up to the capillary level. Furthermore, similar studies may be conducted using in combination with whole organ plastination using silicon and resin embedding.
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    Morphometric Study of Atlas Vertebra In Relation to Sulcus Arteriae Vertebralis
    (IMD Research Publications, 2023-06) Kaur, Jasveen; Gulati, Harpreet Singh; Kaur, Kamaljeet
    Background: Atlas(C1) is an atypical cervical vertebra shaped like a ring. Important structures like the vertebral artery, suboccipital plexus of veins and first cervical nerve pass through it. Knowledge of the variability of C1 is important for neurosurgeons, orthopaedicians, otorhynologists and other physicians who in everyday practice are in contact with disorders of the spine and their consequences. So, this study was undertaken to assess the various dimensions of the C1 in relation to the vertebral artery groove. Methods and materials: Fifty dried human atlas vertebrae were studied. Various measurements were done and statistically analysed. Results: Antero-posterior diameter (APD) of Foramen transversarium(FT) was measured as 7.73 ± 1.04mm on the right and 7.62 ± 0.90mm on left side. Transverse Diameter(TD) of FT was observed as 6.12 ± 0.97mm on the right side and 6.02 ± 0.97mm on the left side. Outer Distance of Vertebral Artery Groove(VAG) was measured as 26.22 ± 2.32mm and 25.84 ± 1.85mm on the right and left sides, respectively. Inner Distance of VAG was observed as 13.10 ± 1.66mm on right and 13.17 ± 1.57mm on the left side. APD of Superior Articular Facet(SAF) was 21.52 ± 2.36mm on right and 21.51 ± 2.07mm on left side.TD of SAF was 11.21 ± 1.47mm on right and 11.32 ± 1.53mm on left side. APD of Inferior Articular Facet(IAF) was observed as 17.54 ± 1.50mm on right and 17.70±1.60mm on left side. TD of IAF was observed as 14.99 ± 1.65mm on the right side and 14.94 ± 1.51mm on left side. Distance between lateral-most edge of both Foramen Transversaria was measured as 56.37 ± 4.11mm and distance between medial-most edge of both Foramen Transversaria was 44.78 ± 3.67mm. MaximumTD of Atlas was measured as 72.09± 5.59mm. Conclusion: The study will generate information that would be useful for geometric modelling of vertebrae and give necessary morphometric data on human atlas vertebra in Indian population.
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    Craniocerebral and Spinal Dysraphism with Omphalocele – A Case Report of Primary Neurulation Defect
    (IMD Research Publications, 2022-03) Rajan, Rahe; Johnson, WMS; Sharath, Krishnaveni; G, Durga Devi; Koshy, Jinu Merlin
    Background: Anencephaly and Spina bifida are the two most common types of neural tube defects (NTDs). Disrupted formation and closure of neural folds leads to Craniocerebral and spinal dysraphisms. Materials and methods: An 18 week old foetus was received in the department of Anatomy after elective medical termination of pregnancy due to the diagnosis of neural tube defect and associated congenital anomalies. Case Report: The foetus had anencephaly, thoracic-lumbar spina bifida, omphlocele and clubbed foot and hands. The foetus was dissected and studied, to look for abnormal internal structures. On meticulous dissection it was found that there were abnormalities in spine, gastrointestinal system and cranium. Conclusion: Anencephaly is a neural tube defect which has multiple neural and non-neural associated anomalies. A detailed description of the combination of associated anomalies goes a long way in updating knowledge on the same.
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    Exploring the Bilateral Comparisons of Articular Surfaces of Talus: An Observational Study at Tertiary Health Care Center in Pune City
    (IMD Research Publications, 2023-06) Nale, Komal M.; Londhe, Balu G.; Gosavi, Shilpa N.
    Background: The existing conclusive data show variations in the subtalar joint regarding its morphological features and articulation of bones. Inadequate studies exist on the morphometry of articular surfaces of the talus which may help in surgical interventions and development of implants and prostheses in diverse populations. Purpose: The current study was undertaken to conduct a bilateral comparison of parameters of articulating surfaces of talus. Material and Methods: An observational study design was carried out at one of the private medical colleges in the Pune district of Maharashtra. A total of 100 (fifty-one from right side and forty-nine left-sided tali) dry human talar bones were collected and various dimensions of articular surfaces of bones were measured by Digital Vernier Caliper and Ruler. The data analysis was performed and results were tabulated and presented graphically. Results: There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in bilateral measurements of lateral articular surface height (LASH) of talar bones. The difference was not significant (p>0.05) for all other parameters. Conclusions: The study inferences can be applied as a guide and baseline information for surgical measures, inflammatory disease management, and forensic anthropologists.
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    Exploring the Learner’s Perception about Embryology – Before and After Introduction of Competency Based Medical Curriculum (CBME)
    (IMD Research Publications, 2022-03) Sharath, Krishnaveni; Rajan, Rahe; G, Durga Devi; Johnson, WMS
    Background: The perceived relevance of a subject/area will decide how much the student will study that. Competency based Medical Curriculum helps students to understand the subject relevance due to its structured format. The feedback from students about subject relevance is needed as they are the primary stakeholders for learning. In this era of involving molecular biology and genetics in medical field, it is very difficult to determine how much to teach a basic subject like embryology. This questionnaire study was done to know the viewpoints of 3rd semester & 5th semester medical students about the relevance and necessity of embryology in medical education. Method: An anonymous questionnaire was sent to 3rd semester, CBME batch & 5th semester students, traditional or regular batch of Sree Balaji Medical College, Chrompet. The pre validated questionnaire contained questions regarding the perceived relevance & importance of embryology. Results: Students reported the relevance of embryology knowledge for learning other medical subjects & they more often acknowledged embryology as being of great importance for their professional careers. This perception has increased especially after introduction of Competency based Medical Curriculum. Overall, study results suggest that medical students have a positive attitude toward embryology undergraduate course. Conclusion: This evidence could be used as an additional motive for the development embryology courses, with special emphasis on practical application of knowledge in clinically-oriented setting.
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    Morphometric Analysis of Vertebral Artery Groove in Human Atlas Vertebra in South Indian Population
    (IMD Research Publications, 2022-03) Saminathan, Suganya
    Introduction: Recent trends like pedicle screws and other instrumentation of cervical vertebra are on the rise. However, proximity of vertebral artery coursing in vertebral artery groove (VAG) on the superior surface of the posterior arch of atlas poses a unique challenge to surgeons performing these procedures. Such vascular injuries though rare, are not uncommon and may pose immediate to delayed complications. Radiological studies of atlas vertebra & VAG are being extensively done with CT and MR Angiography, but morphometric studies of VAG in atlas vertebra in South Indian population is lacking. Aims: To understand the morphology and dimensions of the vertebral artery groove and its variations if any, in dry atlas vertebra of South Indian population. Settings and Design: Descriptive observational study Methods and Material: 50 dried adult human atlas vertebra of unknown age & sex from the Anatomy Department, PSGIMS & R, Coimbatorewere studied. Intact cervical vertebrae without any degenerative or traumatic disorders were included. The morphometry of VAG and its distance from midline were evaluated through six linear measurements.The parameters were inner and outer lengths of the groove, width & thickness of the groove and the distance of its medial most and lateral most edges from the midline on both sides. Statistical analysis used: SPSS software Results: There is no statistically significant difference between mean values on right and left side for inner length, outer length, width and thickness of vertebral artery groove. The mean inner and outer distance of the vertebral artery groove from the midline on the right is higher than the left. Conclusions: The present study provides morphometric data of VAG & recommends a safe zone of 11.82 mm from midline for instrumentation in posterior spinal surgeries to minimize vertebral artery injuries.
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    A Case Report on Hepatopancreatic Anomaly with its histomorphological study in Adult Cadaver
    (IMD Research Publications, 2023-03) Baa., Jeneeta
    The pancreas is a soft, lobulated and mixed gland. As the liver and pancreas develop together from the hepatopancreatic bud it is common that congenital anomalies of liver and pancreas exist together. This study was done during routine practical dissection where a band of tissue was found extending from the head of the pancreas to the root of the Mesentry. On histological examination the tissue was confirmed to be pancreas. It is seen that the hepatic bud grows at the expense of the ventral pancreas. In the present study, we found an atrophied left lobe of liver and an abnormally rare and large uncinate process of pancreas.
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    Comparative Morphological and Morphometrical Analysis of Atrio-Ventricular Valves of Human and Porcine
    (IMD Research Publications, 2023-03) S, Supadevi; Vijaykumar, K.; S, Supasakthi; N, Manimozhian
    There is increased incidence of valvular heart diseases in recent years due to life style modifications. The mortality rates in valvular diseases are kept in pace using various modalities of treatments. One such lifesaving treatment is valve replacement surgeries. These are done by using mechanical valve prosthesis or tissue grafts. The tissue valves prosthesis, harvested from porcine heart are called as xenograft and are increasingly used in valve repair and replacement surgeries. In the present scenario, there is a smaller number of systematically analysed literatures available on the comparative anatomy of human and porcine heart valves. Hence this study was carried out to acquire knowledge and to put forth some points to future research works on heart valves. In this study, 20 formalin fixed porcine and human hearts were procured from slaughter house and cadavers respectively. The morphology and morphometry of tricuspid valve and mitral valve was observed and analysed using spss software 20 version. All the dependent variables were compared using student t test and independent sample test. The results were tabulated and compared. It was observed that the tricuspid and the mitral valve of the porcine resembles the corresponding human heart valves in morphology and morphometry and their values were coinciding to their maximum. The porcine valve resembles human heart valves in morphology and it can be used in designing valve substitutes in replacement surgeries. Porcine valve can also be used as bio-prosthesis by matching the morphometry and by reducing the geometrical difference to their minimum by using any interventional radiology.
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    Prostate Gland in Human Foetuses: A Study of its Histogenesis
    (IMD Research Publications, 2023-06) Karam, Renuca; Rajshree, Huidrom; Subhalakshmi, Wahengbam; Damayanti, Ningthoujam; Saratchandra, N
    Background: To study the histogenesis of the prostate gland in human foetuses. ‘Prostates’ is a Greek word which literally means “one who stands before”, protector, guardian. It is important from a clinical point of view as it undergoes benign enlargement from the fifth decade, hence attracting the attention of males around this age and simultaneously the clinicians. Materials and Methods: 100 foetuses of different gestational ages ranging from 14 weeks (85 mm) to 40 weeks (440 mm), products of terminated pregnancies under Medical Termination of Pregnancy, MTP Act of India, 1971 and stillbirths were collected from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, RIMS, (Regional Institute of Medical Sciences), Imphal, Manipur and utilised for the present study with permission from the Institutional Ethical Committee. Results and Discussion: The first sign of differentiation is recognised as increased cellularity and denser mesenchymal cells. Cytoarchitecture at specific age period at different age groups are described. Conclusion: Cytoarchitecturally, differentiation of all the three components of the prostate gland was noted as the age changes. It is inferred that of the three components of the adult tissues, the glandular component is differentiated from the epithelial lining of the urethra. This further induces the early mesenchymal tissues to differentiate into muscles and fibrous components. And at term, it has all the three components of the adult tissues although it is not as mature as in adult.
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    Histological Features of Different Organs Before and After Treatment of Diabetes by Using Avocado Extract in Rats
    (IMD Research Publications, 2023-06) Tala’a, Ali A.; Ali, Rafid Khalid; Dhari Mohammed, Lubna; Khuder Mohammed, Reyam Abdul
    Aim of the study: The present study aimed to study histological features of different organs before and after treatment of diabetes by using avocado extract in rats. Materials and methods: Hot aqueous extraction of avocado was performed. Forty male rats (weighted 140–190g) were used in this study. Following the time of acclimatization, the animals had an overnight fast of 18 hours before being prepped for alloxan monohydrate-induced diabetes. Before and after induction, measurements of the animals’ body weights and blood glucose levels were made. However, rats received an IP injection of alloxan 150 mg/kg bw. Following that, the rats’ blood glucose levels were tracked every day for 3 weeks to establish a stable levels of blood glucose. The animals were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 got water as a non-induced (negative control) condition. Alloxan-induced rats in Group 2 received water as a positive control. Group 3: Alloxan-induced and aqueous extract-treated animals and Group 4 was only given a 40 g/L dose of the aqueous extract of avocado. Pancreas, livers, as well as kidneys from control, alloxanized, and treated rats were taken at different times, processed and utilized for histological examination after being preserved in 10% formaldehyde till processing and staining. Results: The current results showed a significant difference between different groups especially in G3 at different weeks. However, rats in G2 exhibited depleted islet cells and regions of cell necrosis. The tiny, preserved islet cells (PIL) in diabetic rats treated with extract after 1 week (G3) were an improvement as compared with rats at G2. As the days advanced, more improvements were seen in the pancreatic architecture of the rats treated with extract, including the presence of more noticeable islet cells and exocrine cells. As seen by the intact pancreatic islet in G3, caused the healing of the pancreatic tissue after 3 weeks of treatment by extracts. Alloxanized rats (G2) showed the presence of cell necrosis as well as infiltrations of inflammatory cells. However, as the course of therapy continued, it became clear that the tissue architecture had improved, and more glomeruli were seen as well as fewer inflammatory cells (G3). Livers of rats in (G2) showed visible cell necrosis, when compared to the histology of G1 and G4. After receiving medication, rats in group G3 had compact, healthy liver tissues after three weeks. In conclusion, the pancreas, kidneys, and liver were all protected by the avocado extract and showed enhancement in the histological architecture and glucose levels.
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    Jigsaw Method of Interactive Teaching to Unpuzzle Neuroanatomy
    (IMD Research Publications, 2023-03) Rajan, Rahe; Devi, M.R.Renuka; Koshy, Jinu Merlin; G, Durga Devi; Johnson, W.M.S.; S, Krishnaveni
    Introduction: Student driven interactive methods of teaching are a major part of andragogy, which drives them to professional competency. Jigsaw method is one such interactive teaching modality which fosters self-directed learning and peer interaction. The aim of this study is to access the effectiveness of Jigsaw method of interactive teaching qualitatively and quantitatively among 1st year MBBS students. Materials and methods: this study was done in 1st year medical students. The students were exposed to jigsaw method of interactive teaching in small groups and the program was evaluated by assessing the short and long term memory of the students. Feedback also was obtained from the students. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the mean scores as compared to traditional teaching methods. The perception of students also showed promising results. Discussion: there have been many studies on student perception on such interactive teaching methods which revealed that the students were showing better academic performances. A few studies like the present one, on quantitative assessment of students score after Jigsaw method of interactive teaching has also shown good results. Conclusion: the jigsaw method of interactive teaching encourages student participation and enhances self directed learning and peer assisted learning.
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    Role of Aluminium in Alzheimer’s disease: Ultrastructural Study in Rat Hippocampus
    (IMD Research Publications, 2023-06) Ghosh, Buddhadeb; Akhtaruzzaman; Hansda, Shukchand; Yadav, Suman; Sharma, Ravi Kant
    Background: Exposure to high levels of aluminium (Al) leads to neurotoxicity. Hippocampus is one of the preferred sites of aluminium accumulation. Nevertheless, the role of Al in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remains controversial and there is little proof directly interlinking Al to AD. Aims: The present study was undertaken to find out the occurrence of AD pathogenesis in Hippocampus under moderate aluminium exposure in rats. Materials and Methods: Adult rats were divided into control (C) and aluminium treated (E) groups having eight animal each. The rats in group E were exposed to aluminium 4.2 mg/kg body weight for three months with due approval from Institute Animal Ethics Committee. The hippocampus was processed for histopathological and electron microscopy observation. Results: Moderate Al intake produces significant reduction in the count of Pyramidal cells in hippocampus identified by shrunken cells as well as pyknosis in cell bodies. The differences between the cell numbers in all groups were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Cornu Ammonis (CA) exhibited significantly reduced nissl bodies with a marked reduction in neuronal cell loss. Neurofibrillary tangle and plaques were not seen in the given dose of Al exposure. Electron microscopy from experimental group showed that the majority of neurons were disintegrating, the nuclear membrane has ruptured, and nucleoli appeared significantly distorted. The chromatin condensed and the mitochondria had disintegrated. Many vacuoles and lipofuscin sediment in cytoplasm, as compared to the control group noted. Conclusion: Present data demonstrated that moderate chronic aluminium exposure 4.2mg/kg body weight induced neurodegeneration in hippocampus but not significant for Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis.
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    Study of Incidence of Ponticulus Posterior In Dry Human Atlas Vertebra and Its Clinical Significance
    (IMD Research Publications, 2023-03) Kamdi, Ashish; Ambade, Hemlata; Thakre, Gourav; Kaore, Ashita; Kamdi, N.Y.
    Background: Atlas is the first cervical vertebra. The vertebral artery lies in the groove on posterior arch of the atlas. The vertebral artery groove may sometimes get converted into a foramen. This is commonly known as ponticulus posterior (ponticulus posticus) or arcuate foramen of the atlas. These foramina may be complete or incomplete. This can lead to compression of the vertebral artery and produce symptoms like headache, syncope, altered consciousness etc. It can also complicate manipulations of the cervical spine by reducing the blood flow during extreme rotations of head and neck. It is also associated with vertebrobasilar artery stroke So, neurosurgeons or orthopaedic surgeons who operate in this area should have a detailed knowledge of variations of groove for the vertebral artery. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 50 dried and fully ossified adult human atlas of unknown age and sex collected from the department of Anatomy, Government Medical college, Nagpur. Each atlas vertebra was carefully observed for the presence or absence of complete or incomplete ponticuli on superior surface of posterior arch of atlas. Results: Out of the 50 vertebra studied 7(14%) showed the presence of Ponticuli. Ponticuli were incomplete in all 7 atlas vertebras. Complete ring was not observed in any of the atlas vertebra .Out of the 7 ponticuli 6(12%) were found to be unilateral and in only 1 (2%) case it was found to be bilateral. Out of the 6 ponticuli 4(8%) were noticed on the Left side and 2(4%) were present on the right side. Conclusion: Presence of incomplete ponticulus posterior might cause cervical pain and even cerebrovascular disorders due to pressure on third part of vertebral artery present in the vertebral artery groove. This anatomical knowledge is important for neurosurgeons, orthopaedic surgeons, radiologists and clinicians while dealing with this region.
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    Protective Role of Pomegranate on kidney of Albino Rat Treated with Monosodium Glutamate
    (IMD Research Publications, 2023-03) Salem, Rasha Rabea; Biram, Dalia Mahmoud; homosany, Nesrine Mostafa El
    Background: Sodium mono glutamate (MSG), the sodium salt of glutamic acid, is a food flavoring agent that is widely used in many countries. Pomegranate is used as a traditional medication in numerous countries, it is planted in Asian countries, Mediterranean countries and the U.S.A. Aim of the work: The present study aimed to detect structural and functional changes in adult rat kidney tissue treated with sodium mono glutamate, and the possible protective effect of pomegranate on the kidney treated with MSG. Materials and Methods: This study was done by using 60 adult Wistar Albino rats of both sexes were divided into three equal groups: Group I (control group), Group II (sodium mono glutamate treated group), and Group III (combined MSG and pomegranate treated group) Doses were given once daily for 8 weeks every day. At the end of the treatment period, blood samples collected from each rat were used for measuring the values of urea and creatinine. Also animals of the different groups were sacrificed at the end of the experiment, quickly dissected and the kidneys were removed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for the histological examination by light microscopy, other tissue sections were evaluated using a transmission electron microscope. Both were used to examine the effect of sodium mono glutamate on cortex of the kidneys of albino rats ,compared with control group and the combined MSG and pomegranate group. Results: There was a major rise in blood urea level and blood creatinine level in sodium mono glutamate treated group in contrast to the control group. There was a significant reduction in blood urea level and blood creatinine level in combined sodium mono glutamate and pomegranate treated group in comparison to MSG treated group. Examination of kidney tissue of rats treated with sodium mono glutamate (Group. II) showed damaging changes of its structure. The glomerulus had markedly widened blood capillaries with thickened filtration membrane. The epithelial tubular cells had marked degenerative changes. Examination of rats kidney tissue treated with sodium mono glutamate and pomegranate (Group III) revealed improvement of the lesions in the glomeruli and renal tubules. Conclusion: Pomegranate protected the kidneys and restricted the histological and functional alterations caused by sodium mono glutamate, and thus, there is an advantage of usage of pomegranate with sodium mono glutamate.
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    A Multipurpose Cadaveric Prosection for Anatomy Education
    (IMD Research Publications, 2023-03) Knutson, Shannon; Bassey, Rosemary B.
    The use of dissections had been the core approach to anatomy education for undergraduate medical and allied health sciences for centuries. However, the move towards integration of basic and clinical sciences has resulted in the decline of gross anatomy as a separate subject in many medical schools in the United States. This has led to the creative use of various technological tools in instruction, but the benefits of cadavers in comprehending the complexities of the human structure cannot be overlooked. Moreover, with the use of prosections becoming a popular alternative, systematic techniques for prosection are needed to maximize their efficient utilization. Here, we present a detailed technique for preparation of a multipurpose cadaveric prosection with conserved anatomical relationships for use in demonstrating surface and gross anatomy
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    Morphometric Assessment of Pedicles of Indian Adult Lumbar Vertebrae: A Cross Sectional Study
    (IMD Research Publications, 2022-12) Londhe, Balu Gangaram; Garud, Rajendra Somnath; Khemnar, Ganesh Bhausaheb
    Introduction: Lumbar vertebral column is exposed to various kinds of stress during locomotion. In erect posture weight transmitted through posterior part including pedicles. This causes deformities of this region as the age advances in many individuals. Proper correction of deformity is challenging. There have been advances in spinal fusion procedures and interspinous implantation of devices including pedicle screws. Use of unsuitable dimensions of screw may cause problem of destruction of pedicle. Correct metricular data of pedicle is necessary for choice of appropriate screw size. Aims and Objectives: 1) To measure the various dimensions in Indian adult human lumbar vertebral pedicles. 2) To prepare data of lumbar pedicles useful in various surgical procedures. Material and Methods: A Cross-sectional study was done on 45 dry, fully ossified human lumbar vertebral sets. The bones were grouped into typical (L1 to L4) and atypical (L5) lumbar vertebrae. The dimensions measured included pedicle length, height, thickness, axial length, transverse and sagittal angles. ‘Digital Vernier Caliper’ and Protractor were used. The data was analyzed statistically. Results: The mean length, height and thickness of typical vertebral pedicles increases gradually. In atypical (L5), pedicle thickness suddenly increases. The transverse angle of pedicle elevated gradually from L1 to L4 but at L5, it abruptly increased. Conclusions: The study reported significant differences in several dimensions of pedicles of typical as well as atypical lumbar vertebrae. These differences should be considered by neurosurgeons.
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    Morphological Variations of Sacrum in Adult Indian Population
    (IMD Research Publications, 2022-03) Saluja, Sandeep; Agarwal, Sneh; Tuli, Anita; Raheja, Shashi; Tigga, Sarika Rachel
    Introduction: The sacrum is considered as a highly variable bone. Several morphological variations have been documented which exhibit differences in the frequency of occurrence and morphological characteristics in various study populations. Variant anatomy of the sacrum may be associated with backache, enuresis, neurological anomalies of the lower limb and functional disorders of lower urinary tract. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe morphological variations of sacrum in Indian population and enable comparison with different populations. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 108 dry adult human sacra and morphological characteristics and variations were noted. Results: Sacral skewness was observed in 7.4% sacra with right sided skewness being predominant. The presence of accessory auricular surface (AAS) was noted in 13% sacra which was at the level of S3 vertebra in most sacra. Spina bifida (SB) was observed in 11.1% sacra and it was most commonly located at S1 vertebral level. Furthermore, the lumbo-sacral transitional vertebra (TV) was documented in 10.2% sacra. Conclusions: Sacrum displays numerous variations in Indian population such as skewness, AAS, SB and TV. Thorough knowledge of morphological characteristics and variations of sacrum is vital and should be contemplated during diagnosis and treatment of sacrum-related diseases.
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    Doppler Indices of the Fetal Middle Cerebral and the Umbilical Arteries in Pregnancies at High Risk Followed Up for Suspected Fetal Growth Restriction
    (IMD Research Publications, 2023-03) Mahalinga, Gandla; Rajasekhar, Konduru Varadarajulu; S, Nagaraj; Reddy, M. Venkateshwar
    Background: Fetal growth restriction is related to compromised perinatal outcomes. The screening and prevention tools for fetal growth restriction like Doppler indices in high-risk groups compared with general antenatal populations. An evaluation of the correlation between Doppler indices and placental weight and birth weight of the neonate at term pregnancy in high-risk pregnancies is essential. For the early detection of fetal growth limitations in high-risk pregnancies, sensitive screening techniques are few. Objectives: To determine the most accurate indicator for predicting a poor perinatal outcome or intrauterine growth restriction by comparing and correlating the modifications in Doppler ultrasound studies of fetal circulation in general pregnant women with those of high-risk patients both with and without intrauterine growth retardation. Study design: A cross-sectional research including 81 healthy pregnancies and 19 high-risk patients at 31–40 weeks of gestation was conducted. The pulsatility index (PI) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), the umbilical artery (UA), and the MCA PI to UA PI ratio were all analyzed. We compared the Doppler indices’ mean values. Then these values were correlated with placental weight and birth weight of the offspring. Results: A significantly low birth weight and less fetoplacental ratio and placental coefficient ratio were found in high-risk cases than in normal pregnant women (P <0.05). A strong positive relationship was observed between the middle cerebral artery pulsatility index and placental weight, while negative relationship between the pulsatility index of the middle cerebral artery and the Feto-placental ratio (P < 0.05). In addition, a positive association was found between the pulsatility index of the middle cerebral artery and placental coefficient, whereas a negative correlation was observed between the Cerebro-placental ratio and Feto-placental ratio in high-risk cases (P <0.05). Conclusion: Low birth weight can be predicted using Doppler indices since there is a definite correlation between it and unfavorable perinatal outcomes.