International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health

Editor-in-Chief: Dr. Bhaven C. Kataria
ISSN: 2394-6032 (Print):2394-6040 (Online)

Frequency: Quarterly

Language: English

Open Access Peer-reviewed journal

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Now showing 1 - 20 of 1299
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    Malaria or typhoid co-infection in a tertiary care hospital of Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India
    (Medip Academy, 2020-02) Katiyar, Ghanshyam Dass; Agarwal, Ajay Kumar; Khan, Swati; Chaudhary, Bharat Chand; Sharma, Mahendra
    Background: Malaria is a protozoal disease caused by infection with parasite of genus Plasmodium. Typhoid is common with malarial infection.Methods: A cross sectional study was done to find out co-infection of typhoid and malaria. Study was done in central pathological lab of department of pathology, RMCH, Bareilly. Blood samples were collected in EDTA vial and plain vial. Blood smear was examined for malaria parasite within RBCs. Malaria rapid test was done for detection of Plasmodium species and Widal test was done for typhoid.Results: In this study found co-infection of malaria with typhoid was 15.64%. In malarial cases 54.50% were males, while maximum cases (26.92%) were in 21-30 yrs age group. Cases of P. vivax was maximum (86.28%) and maximum cases of P. vivax (29.42 %) was in 11-20 yrs age group while that of P. falciparum (22.22%) was in 11-20, 21-30, 41-50 yrs age group and maximum number (23.60%) of mixed malarial infection was in 31-40 yrs age group, While co-infection of malaria with typhoid was maximum (24.59%) was in 11-20 yrs age group and maximum (53.28%) in females. Maximum (79.51%) cases of typhoid were of P. vivax.Conclusions: Malaria and typhoid co-infection still remain a major public health problem in many developing countries. Concurrent infection with two agents can result in an illness having overlapping symptoms creating a diagnostic dilemma for the treating physician.
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    Prevalence of depression among the elderly in urban area of Perambalur district
    (Medip Academy, 2020-02) Raveendran, Nirmal S.; Abinaya, Ravi; Britto, Rock; Sankar, Saranya; Ramachandran, Sharathkumar; Balamurugan, Santhosh; Bharathwaj, Panchanathan
    Background: Depression at any age needs attention. Geriatric population being most vulnerable, are more prone to many morbidities, physically and mentally. Geriatric depression is one among them which needs prompt attention. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of geriatric depression and association of depression with various sociodemographic factors.Methods: A cross sectional study carried out among 300 geriatric subjects. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data.Results: The prevalence of depression was found to be 44.4%. Female gender, marital status, family type was found to be positively associated with depression.Conclusions: Geriatric depression in our study is found to be on little higher side. Lifestyle modifications and support from family members are needed to improve the quality of life of these people.
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    Awareness of vaccine cold chain handlers about vaccine cold chain in district Etawah
    (Medip Academy, 2020-02) Kumar, Shishir; Singh, Naresh Pal; Jain, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Sandip
    Background: Vaccine potency can be lost when exposed to non-recommended temperatures. Hence for the proper running of the universal immunization programme (UIP) factors like vaccine cold chain and vaccine management wants great focus and attention skills and knowledge of the vaccine cold chain handlers so for good implementation of UIP vaccine cold chain handlers are important.Methods: This was an observational cross-sectional study. Study duration was carried out from October 2017 to March 2018. All the 16 cold chain handlers of district Etawah were interviewed.Results: All 16 (100.0%) were male and 1 (6.3%), 2 (12.5%), 8 (50.0%) and 5 (31.3%) of the respondents were high schools, intermediate, graduate, and post-graduate respectively. It had been observed that the hundred percent of the cold chain handlers with the knowledge of vaccine cold chain. It has been observed from the study that 15 (93.7%) cold chain handlers had knowledge of temperature range for vaccine storage.Conclusions: Quality of immunization program depends upon cold chain management at peripheral health institutions. In our study, we have found that most of the vaccine handlers were reported to have appropriate knowledge regarding the cold chain.
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    Prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders and its determinants among school children aged 6 to 12 years in rural areas of Koppal district, Karnataka
    (Medip Academy, 2020-02) Mane, Vijaykumar P.; Yenkanaik, Yuvaraj Banot; Nimbannavar, Smita M.; L., Anilkumar; Holyachi, Sharankumar; K. V., Chetana
    Background: Iodine deficiency disorders are recognized as major public health problem in India and the simplest, most effective and inexpensive preventive method is the consumption of Iodized salt. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of goitre among children aged 6 to 12 years in rural areas of Koppal district, to determine various factors associated with goiter among children, to estimate the level of urinary iodine excretion among urine samples collected from children and to estimate the level of iodine content among salt samples collected in the study setting.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted for a duration of 6 months from June 2018 to November 2018 in rural areas of Koppal district among 3047 school children aged 6 to 12 years selected by cluster sampling technique. Goiter was detected and graded using standard techniques and the collected salt and urine samples were sent to MRHRU, Sirwar, Raichur for analysis. Data was collected using pretested and semistructured questionnaire and was analyzed using WHO Epi info software version 3.5.4.Results: The prevalence of goitre among school children in Koppal district was 442 (14.5%) and it was found to be significantly associated with age and source of drinking water. Majority i.e., 65.96% of urine samples had iodine content less than 100 µg/l and majority i.e., 79.15% of salt samples had iodine content less than 15 PPM.Conclusions: Goiter is mild public health problem in Koppal district with majority of urine samples excreting iodine below optimum levels and majority of salt samples being inadequately iodized.
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    Knowledge, socio demographic profile, vaccination status and factors determining the acceptance of hepatitis B vaccine among nursing staff of KPC Medical College of West Bengal
    (Medip Academy, 2020-02) Sikder, Rajib; Kundu, Subha Sankha; Dey, Rituraj; Pattanayak, Ujjwal; Majumdar, Kunal Kanti; Joardar, Gautam Kumar
    Background: Hepatitis B, a vaccine preventable infection is one of the important causes of morbidity in India. The risk of acquiring the infection is more among the health care providers like nurses than in general population as they come in close contact with patients. The study has been done to know the sociodemographic profile, vaccination status along with the knowledge about the disease and the factors determining the acceptance of vaccination among nursing staff of KPC Medical College in West Bengal.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among the 284 nursing staff of KPC Medical College and Hospital in November to December, 2018 with the help of pre-designed and semi-structured questionnaire. Data on demographic characteristics, knowledge, occupational exposure, vaccination status and factors for acceptance of vaccine etc. were collected and analysed.Results: 86% nursing staff received vaccination out of which 71% were completely vaccinated, 29% were partially and 14% were non vaccinated. The acceptable knowledge was found in 84% of the nurses. The major reason of vaccination was to protect themselves from infection and the major reason for non-acceptance was time limitation, cost issues etc. Accidental prick was found in 5% of the nurses and universal precautionary measure was taken by 98% of the nurses.Conclusions: In spite of availability of safe, effective and cheap vaccine against hepatitis B infection, 29% of nursing staff were partially vaccinated and 14% were non-vaccinated. There should be a mandatory vaccination at the beginning of their training and frequent educational and awareness programme for them on hepatitis B.
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    Prevalence of non-cancer chronic morbidity in tobacco users among adults in Kolar district: community-based study
    (Medip Academy, 2020-02) S., Harish; Prasad, K. N.
    Background: Tobacco contains many chemicals which causes cancer and chronic morbidities as evidenced from number of studies. Information regarding the chronic morbidities resulting from tobacco use was lacking in Indian setting. This study was conducted with the objective to find the prevalence of chronic morbidities other than cancer and oral conditions in tobacco users among adults in Kolar district.Methods: This is a community based, cross sectional study conducted in Kolar district among selected sample size of 1534 from six taluks during December 2018 to March 2019. The structured questionnaire was used to collect information at different geographical and social meeting places to represent the sample. The questionnaire contained information about sociodemographic, tobacco use and self-declared morbidity conditions.Results: Study subjects were aged between 18 to 80 years and the mean age was 53.7±18.2 years. The prevalence of chronic morbidity was 14.4% in 1534 subjects and 24.2% in 521 tobacco users. Diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases accounted for 80 percent of morbidities followed by respiratory and other systems. The odd ratio (OR) was 3.4 for tobacco users and chronic morbidities, OR for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases was 5-19 and 5-22 respectively.Conclusions: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and other conditions are high among any form of tobacco use or consumption, illiterates, aged above 51 years and agriculture related workers compared to no tobacco users. There is a need of awareness about early detection of chronic morbidities to reduce the premature deaths and economic loss to the community.
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    Determinants of open-air defecation in rural Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu
    (Medip Academy, 2020-02) Vasudevan, Swarnapriya; Nallasamy, Srinivasan; Loganathan, Arjun
    Background: Open defecation refers to the practice whereby people go out in fields, bushes, forests, open bodies of water, or other open spaces rather than using toilet to defecate. This practice contributes to the emergence of infectious diseases which forms a threat to health of people. This study attempts to find the prevalence of open-air defecation (OAD) and to explore factors influencing the practice.Methods: The present study was a community based cross-sectional study taken up in the C. Manampadi village covering 153 households. A semi structured questionnaire along with the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) questionnaire was used to collect data.Results: Our study results show that 35.3% of the households had no toilet facility in their houses and were practicing open air defecation. There was a significant association between open air defection and variables like literacy level of head of the family, community and water adequacy.Conclusions: This study highlights that the study population practices OAD not due to economic in sufficiency but due to social constraints.
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    Health care seeking behaviour of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh
    (Medip Academy, 2020-02) Sahu, Rupesh; Verma, Prashant; Kasar, Pradeep K.
    Background: Successful tuberculosis control requires specific behaviors from patients and health providers. Therefore, understanding behaviors is fundamental to design interventions to strengthen tuberculosis control programs, including communication interventions. The aim of this study was to assess the healthcare-seeking behavior of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients in Jabalpur district.Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted among category I new sputum positive PTB patients identified from nine designated microscopy centres from November 2013 to October 2014. Calculated sample size of 135 with a multistage random sampling method was used. Student’s t-test and Chi-square test were used along with descriptive statistics.Results: Mean age of patients was 33.87 (14.3) years, males constituted 66.7%, 72.5% patients belonged to below class IV socioeconomic status. Cough was experienced by 91.1% subjects, followed by fever (69.6%). First action was consulting a health care provider (HCP) in 41.5% followed by self-medication (21.5%). It took two attempts for 76% of patients to reach a formal health care provider. Private health care providers were consulted as first choice among HCPs by 86.7% patients, initial diagnosis was made by them in 25.9% cases. Sixty-three percent of patients were not satisfied with care at government hospitals, 41.5% had not heard of tuberculosis before their diagnosis, 59.5% of patients got information about tuberculosis from their relatives suffering from it.Conclusions: Cough is the most common and earliest symptom responsible for seeking care in pulmonary tuberculosis. Government health facilities contribute maximum to diagnosis but private health facility is the first choice for initial consultation. Patients’ perception of suggestive symptoms needs to be changed.
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    Cost-effectiveness analysis of serological prenatal screening for pregnant women in King Abdulaziz University Hospital: a single-center retrospective study
    (Medip Academy, 2020-01) Asiri, Atheer Yahya Saeed; Alsawa, Ibtisam Talak Audallah; Anas, Mahmoud Omar Fallatah; Sondos, Sami Hussein; Hisham ,Z. Alshehri; Aseel, Ahmed Mohammedali Aljahdali; Arwa, Zuhair Fatani; Samera, Albasri
    Background: Congenital primary infections with Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein–Bar virus (EBV), rubella, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are viral infections transmitted transplacentally through the blood to the fetus and can be life-threatening. Therefore, we aimed to determine the prevalence of these infections and assess the cost-effectiveness of blood tests among pregnant women with positive serologies.Methods: This retrospective review was conducted among pregnant women with positive prenatal screening serology test results between January 2013 to July 2018. A p-value of <0.05 was used to calculate statistical significance.Results: Overall, 9095 pregnant women delivered in the last 5 years. Of these, 97 had positive prenatal screening serology and were enrolled in our study. Of 97, 61 (62.9%) were Saudis and 36 (37.1%) non-Saudis. The prevalence rates of rubella, CMV, EBV, and HBV were 78.35%, 59.79%, 14.43%, and 5.15%, respectively. Additionally, 44 of 97 women developed undesired antepartum outcomes, whereas 47 had adverse neonatal outcomes. CMV, HBV, and rubella were significantly associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes (P<0.005). During the study period, USD 1460228.27 was spent to screen 9095 pregnant women and USD 15573.68 to diagnose 97 pregnant women with positive serology.Conclusions: Because infections with toxoplasma, CMV, EBV, rubella, and HBV can cause serious risk to the mother and fetus during pregnancy. Thus, setting new hospital policies regarding early screening for high-risk pregnancies and early detection of these infections during prenatal visits are inevitable to avoid undesired outcomes.
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    Fast food consumption pattern amongst undergraduates of various disciplines of private colleges in Pune
    (Medip Academy, 2020-02) Mahajan, Sudhanshu A.; Gothankar, Jayashree S.
    Background: The consumption of various types of fast food is increasingly germinating in all components of the world, each in developed and developing countries.Methods: A cross sectional study was done to explore the perception and knowledge regarding fast food consumption from March 2019 to June 2019 amongst the 300 undergraduate students within the ages of 18 to 20 of three established private colleges of different disciplines in Pune. Paperless data was collected by a predesigned, pretested questionnaire with the help of google forms and statistical analysis was done.Results: The prevalence of consumption of fast food was found to be maximum in the undergraduates belonging to the high-income group (socio-economic class I). Around 85% of the undergraduates consumed fast foods and out of 85% nearly 17% consumed once a day. The undergraduates from all disciplines were also perceived as fast food consumption is measure of one’s socio-economic status, 76% for medical and the lowest for engineering undergraduates (55%). A significant difference between medical, engineering and architecture undergraduates was reported regarding the perception that fast food consumption has no harmful effect on body (40, 26 and 57, p<0.001). About 37% of the students had very poor knowledge, 40% of the students had poor knowledge,13% had average and only 10% had good knowledge regarding fast food consumption leading to non-communicable diseases.Conclusions: The consequences of this study propose that a requirement for health education programs that stimulate healthy eating habits and lifestyle for undergraduate college students.
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    Doctor-patient interactions with respect to type of practice
    (Medip Academy, 2020-02) Hullur, Himaad M.; Dandekar, Ashlesha A.; Raje, Swati S.
    Background: The doctor-patient relationship is the core foundation for healing, care, establishment of trust and an essential part of modern-day medical ethics. The last few decades have seen an exponential growth in the scientific component of the medical field which has led to a strain on doctor-patient relationship. With the growing trend of patients wanting more information from their doctor in order to have a more active role in their health-care, active communication from the physician’s end is needed. Present study aims to find out what doctors over various fields expect out of this relationship.Methods: A cross sectional prospective study was conducted among a total of 49 urban and rural doctors of various specialities in an urban area of Maharashtra using a pre-structured questionnaire. The statistical tools used to analyse the data was by using Microsoft excel software.Results: It was also noted that time spent with patients was less by the specialists as compared with other doctors for all aspects of consultation. On evaluating experience with the duration of consultation, we noted that doctors having more than 30 years of experience gave lesser time for all aspects of consultation as compared to those with lesser experience. A close range, between 45%-57% of all physicians, admitted to answering phone calls during consultations.Conclusions:It is imperative to study doctor-patient interactions since a better relationship results in a more satisfied patient with better treatment outcome.
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    A cross sectional study on out born neonate referral pattern and factors influencing the neonatal outcomes among the out born neonates admitted to sick newborn care units of a government teaching hospital
    (Medip Academy, 2020-02) Khot, Poornima Basavraj; Thejeshwari, H. L.; Kumar; M, Sundar; Kumar, Prasanna
    Background: Neonatal mortality rate (NMR) is one of the major contributors to infant mortality rate. The neonatal mortality depends on many factors birth weight, gestational age, post-natal care; it also depends on maternal social and environmental conditions which contribute to the social determinants of maternal health. This study was taken up to identify maternal social determinants contributing to outcome among outborn neonates in order to reduce neonatal deaths. The present was conducted to assess the outcome among the outborn neonates and assess the maternal social determinants of health affecting the outcome.Methods: A cross sectional study conducted in sick newborn care units (SNCU), Hassan Institute of Medical Sciences, Hassan among all out born neonates. After taking prior written consent, all mothers/bystanders of outborn neonates were interviewed using predesigned, pretested semi-structured proforma. Social factors, environmental conditions and antenatal care affecting the maternal health were collected. Neonatal outcome data was collected from SNCU register. The mothers/bystanders of outborn neonates not willing to give consent and re-admitted neonates were excluded from the study. Data analysis was done using SPSS V20.0.Results: Of 353 outborn neonates admitted, 16.1% was mortality rate. Number of antenatal care visits, consumption of iron tablets, gestational age, high risk mother, staff attending delivery, birth weight, referral time (at p≤0.5) and distance from hospital, passive smoking exposure, maternal services utilization (at p-value <0.1) were significantly associated with poor outcome among outborn neonates.Conclusions: There is need for establishment of SNCUs at sub-divisional levels.
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    Usefulness of serology in diagnosis of different clinical presentations of ocular toxoplasmosis
    (Medip Academy, 2020-02) Krishnankutty, Saritha V.; Reni, Philip; Narayani, Vijayamma
    Background: Large proportions of acquired cases of ocular toxoplasmosis are reported with atypical presentations. The objectives of the study were to find out whether any correlation existed between serological findings of typical and atypical presentations of ocular toxoplasmosis as compared to cases presenting with non-toxoplasmic uveitis and to find out the proportion of various atypical presentations of ocular toxoplasmosis.Methods: It was a prospective observational study.The study subjects of ocular toxoplasmosis were tested for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) toxoplasma antibody levels in serum by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) technique. The proportion of atypical presentation among total toxoplasma cases and distribution of atypical cases were calculated. Fisher’s exact test, one-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-wallis test were used as applicable.Results: Among the cases (n=35) thirteen patients had typical presentation of a retinochoroidal focus with an adjacent scar and 22 patients had atypical features. Control group consisted of 24 patients. Various types of presentations in atypical cases were retinitis patch without an adjacent scar (31.8%), intermediate uveitis (27.3%), papillitis (22.7%) retinal vasculitis and dense vitritis (9.09% each). Mean IgG levels in typical cases (85.3±82.9 IU/ml) and atypical cases (47.5±66.2) were significantly higher than control group (6.6±3.4, p<0.001).Conclusions: Serology is a useful tool in the diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis with a compatible clinical picture as serum IgG levels are significantly elevated in both typical and atypical presentations of ocular toxoplasmosis as compared to cases presenting with non-toxoplasmic uveitis.
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    Exclusive breastfeeding and infection amongst children in Northern Kerala
    (Medip Academy, 2020-02) Gopalamenon, Nandini; Binub, Kanniyan; Ramachandran, Remya
    Background: Breastfeeding is regarded as a perfect, natural and protective food for newborns. Early initiation of breast feeding within first hour of birth along with exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months followed by continued breast feeding for up to two years is the most appropriate feeding strategy.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 89 children in the age group one year six months to five years in Malapuram district. Convenient sampling technique was used to interview mothers. Results were expressed as percentages and proportions. Chi square test was used to test the association between the variables.Results: A total of 89 children were studied out of which 51.7% (46) were females. All the mothers are educated and Most of them are homemakers. Normal vaginal delivery was the common mode of delivery in 55.1% and colostrum was given to 97.8% children. Breast feeding was initiated within half an hour for 47 (52.8%) children. Only 62.9% of the children were exclusively breastfed for 6 months. Only 1 child was unimmunized and 96.6% of the children were fully immunized.Conclusions: The children who were exclusively breastfed had less infections compared to children who were non-exclusively breast fed. It is had less infections, not handless infections.
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    Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders among population of district Chamba, Himachal Pradesh
    (Medip Academy, 2020-02) Kumari, Sandhu Sumita; Kumar, Dhiman, Arvind
    Background: Iodine insufficiency is prevalent throughout the world, and is rated as one of the most significant public health concerns in more than 125 countries. Secondary to the insufficient dietary consumption of iodine, almost two billion individuals are prone to suffer from iodine deficiency disorders worldwide. The present survey was conducted in district Chamba of Himachal Pradesh in order to assess the extent of iodine deficiency disorders, 55 years after the initiation of salt iodisation programme.Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted in district Chamba of Himachal Pradesh. A close ended pretested questionnaire was used to collect the socio-demographic information of the participants. Iodine content of salt and water was assessed with the use of I-Check and AQUA test kits in the households.Results: A total of 230 households were surveyed for the consumption of iodised salt which showed that 100% of the study population was using packet iodised salt for consumption. Majority of the population (92.6%) were placing their salt container near chulah in their kitchen and 73.5% were adding the salt in the beginning of the cooking followed by 16.1% in the middle of the cooking. Iodine content of salt sample collected revealed that 95.7% contain only 7 ppm iodine and 99.6% of the water sample contains less than 0.1 level iodine in water testing.Conclusions: The results of study indicated that population of district Chamba is using iodised salt but there is still need of strengthening of monitoring system as well as health education regarding the cooking practices in the households.
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    Preference for male child among married adults in rural and urban field practice areas of Narayana Medical College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
    (Medip Academy, 2020-02) Vardhan, Y. Vishnu; Rao, D. Srinivas
    Background: Reduction of national fertility levels was directly proportional to the preference of male child in many families in India. We conducted this study on 214 married adults, in both sexes to find out whether this strong preference still exists in this decade or not, and if it does what could be the reasons.Methods: A community based cross-sectional study done by face to face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire containing both qualitative and quantitative variables, among 214 married adults.Results: Upon analysing the results, we identified that higher son preference (61.23%) is seen in many rural families, and is strongly associated with low socio-economic status, literacy rate and caste. The reasons by which these families prefer male child were also broadly categorized and identified. Economic utility (78%) and old age security (61%) was found to be the major reasons most families has quoted in preferring a son.Conclusions: By improving the literacy rate and job opportunities in the community, fertility rate can be reduced, especially in rural areas where the other options are limited.
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    Prevalence and determinants of exclusive breastfeeding among urban mothers of Central Kerala
    (Medip Academy, 2020-02) Raveendran, Ajith; Joseph, Jose; V. D., Manjula; A, Sobha
    Background: Breastfeeding is accepted as the natural form of infant feeding. The world health organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding of infants for first six months of age. The primary objective of the present study is to estimate the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and the secondary objectives were to identify factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among all mother infant pairs of 6-12 months age enlisted in the updated MCH register of KMCH center, Ettumanoor. Data was collected using a semi structured interview schedule. Factors related to exclusive breastfeeding were analysed by bivariate and multivariate analysis using SPSS version19.0.Results: Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was 21.9% with a median duration of four months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that maternal education, working mother, advice on exclusive breast feeding during antenatal visits and length of breast-feeding session were independently associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Inadequacy of breast milk was the major reason for non-exclusive breastfeeding.Conclusions: Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding is low in this particular area. Hence promotion of exclusive breastfeeding and focus on factors affecting them is highly warranted in this area.
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    Diabetes registry initiative in Delta State Nigeria: narrative of the kick-off experience
    (Medip Academy, 2020-01) Eunice, O. Igumbor; Otovwe, Agofure; Chukwuma, Onyimi; Bwititi, Phillip T.; Ezekiel, U. Nwose
    Background: This is parallel with the piece of work on behavioral change wheel of healthcare professionals. The objective is to assess how much standard diabetes care service that is available in the community-based health facility and the barriers to patients’ participation.Methods: This was based on free diabetes clinics, which constituted the beginning of the development of diabetes register series. Observational study and surveys were conduct to determine scope service available in the hospital and factors that influence participation of patients.Results: It is observed that lack of hospital consultants is the greatest ‘health system’ barrier faced by the individuals living with diabetes.Conclusions: There is a need for individuals living with diabetes to be educated on the importance of adherence to medical check-up appointments. The healthcare professionals and providers also need professional development on the importance of diabetes register in the management of patients.
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    Impact of anti-tubercular treatment on weight and symptoms of category I tuberculosis patients in an urban city of central India
    (Medip Academy, 2020-02) Barnwal, Rajan K.; Gawande, Avinash V.; Narlawar, Uday W.; Zurmure, Sandip A.
    Background: Sputum conversion and weight gain are prognostic markers of treatment outcome in tuberculosis (TB) patients. Very few studies in India have assessed impact of TB treatment on weight of patients and perceived improvement in symptoms. This prospective study aimed to assess the impact of anti-tubercular treatment on weight and perceived symptoms.Methods: Three interviews were done for each patient i.e. at start (within 7 days of starting anti-tubercular treatment), at the end of intensive phase and at the end of continuation phase for recording body weight and perceived symptoms. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize baseline characteristics. Mean scores at different stages of treatment were compared by repeat measure ANOVA. P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.Results: Out of 58 study subjects enrolled for the study, 53 could be followed up till the end. Mean weight improved in six months of anti-tubercular treatment. Improvement was statistically non-significant. Cough and fever were the most common symptoms prior to beginning of treatment. After the first 2 months the proportion of subjects with symptoms declined for all five symptoms i.e. fever, cough, chest pain, sweats, and dyspnoea.Conclusions: There was positive impact on weight gain in patients under category I treatment. The symptoms improved drastically in first two months with near complete resolution in six months of treatment.
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    A prospective study to find the prevalence of domestic violence against married females of rural India
    (Medip Academy, 2020-02) Pundkar, Rutuja Dinkar
    Background: Starting from Vedic age to twenty first century, women have never been given equal freedom as of males. It is always the women who have to be on the tight rope, subject to inequality and looked down as an inferior sex. The aim and objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of domestic violence.Methods: 776 married females were selected by systematic random sampling from the field practice area under primary health care. Prior a pilot study was carried out among 25 married class IV female workers. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used and all the confidentiality was maintained. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 21 software.Results: Average age of the respondents was 28.13 years with range 18 to 56 years. Overall 96% respondents were literate, whereas literacy rate in rural population in parent district was 67.8%. Majority number of respondents were housewives i.e. 58.37%.Conclusions: Various sociodemographic factors like age of the women, education of women and perpetrator, age at marriage of women, and the socio-economic status shows inverse relationship with occurrence of domestic violence. More economic empowerment, along with higher education, may provide women with the ground of awareness protesting platform eventually promoting protective factors against domestic violence.