International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology

Chief Editor: Dr. Bhaven Kataria

Print ISSN: 2319-2003 (Print)

Frequency: 6 issues a year

Language: English

Open Access Peer-reviewed journal

Web site:


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 1711
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    Adverse drug reactions and treatment outcome analysis in multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients at a DOTS plus site
    (Medip Academy, 2020-04) Velingker, Anita; Lawande, Durga
    Background: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) requires treatment with expensive, toxic, anti-tubercular drugs over a longer duration. Adverse drug reaction (ADR) to second line anti tubercular drugs affect compliance and hence treatment outcome. The primary objective of this study was to analyse ADRs and if these resulted in change or permanent suspension of drug. We also analysed treatment outcome, treatment adherence and co morbidities associated with MDR patients.Methods: A retrospective study was carried out at DOTS plus site in department of Pulmonary Medicine, Goa Medical College on registered MDR cases from November 2011 to October 2016. Socio demographic profile, diagnosis, treatment and ADRs were evaluated, ADRs were evaluated for frequency, causative drugs, management aspect and impact on treatment outcome.Results: Out of 201 MDR cases, 99 cases had 167 ADRs. Majority of patients having ADRs were in age group of 30-50 years with mean眘tandard deviation 36.82�.47, 59 (59.59%) males and 40 (40.40%) females, 92 (92.92%) retreatment cases and 7 (7.07%) newly diagnosed. Majority of ADRs were vomiting 31(18.56%), joint pain 31 (18.56%), gastritis 21 (12.57%), hearing impairment 16 (9.58%), numbness in leg 14 (8.38%), depression 12 (7.18%). Treatment outcome of cases with ADR was cured 45 (45.45%), treatment completed16 (16.16%), progressed to XDR 6 (6.06%), transferred out 5 (5.05%), defaulter 14 (14.14%), death 13 (13.13%).Conclusions: It is very important to recognise at the earliest and treat the ADRs with least modification of the treatment regimen to have a good treatment outcome.
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    Hematological profile of sickle cell disease in Chhattisgarh
    (Medip Academy, 2020-04) Verma, Ashish; Maheshwari, Basant; Rath, Debapriya
    Background: Sickle cell disease hemoglobinopathy gets inherited in autosomal recessive pattern. In sickle cell disease substitution of amino acid valine for glutamic acid at the sixth position on beta globin chain takes place resulting in sickled hemoglobin which is a hemoglobin tetramer.Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in the Sickle Cell Institute, Raipur, India, and Department of Pharmacology in collaboration with Department of Biochemistry, Pt. J.N.M. Medical College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India, from February 2018 to June 2018. Patients included were in the steady state for a long period of time without any symptoms related to sickle cell disease or any other diseases which could affect hematological parameters. Subjects transfused in the last three months were excluded. Student t test and Pearson Correlation Coefficient test was done on stat pages and socscistatistics calculators. P-value<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.Results: A total of 50 subjects of sickle cell disease homozygous (SS) were studied for hematological parameters. The mean age盨D of 50 subjects were 13.3�24 years. Out of 50 subjects, 35 were males and 15 were females. Total RBC count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) was low in present study. Significant inverse correlation was found in females between HbA2 and HbF, p=0.01, while it was insignificant and negatively correlated in males being 0.23.Conclusions: Sickle cell disease homozygous is a common and challenging health problem of Chhattisgarh population.
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    Lipid profile among controlled and uncontrolled type-2 diabetic patients in a rural tertiary care center: a comparative study
    (Medip Academy, 2020-04) Gangadhar, Manu; Muthahanumaiah, Narasimhamurthy K.
    Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the major health problem and endemic with rapidly increasing prevalence in both developed and developing countries. It has strong association with dyslipidaemias in relation to glycaemic control and duration of the disease. Dyslipidaemias make diabetic patients more susceptible to coronary artery disease (CAD) which is the major cause of increased mortality and morbidity. Objectives were to estimate the blood glucose levels and lipid profiles among diabetics and to compare the lipid profiles among controlled and uncontrolled diabetic subjects.Methods: A cross sectional study was done including 100 diabetic subjects aged between 40 to 60 years of either sex. Patients were classified into 2 groups with 50 subjects in each group as per their glycemic index. Group 1 was controlled diabetic patients (HbA1c?7.5%) and Group 2 was uncontrolled diabetic patients (HbA1c>7.5%). Venous blood samples were collected from the subjects. The serum was used for analyzing FBS, PPBS, HbA1c and lipid profiles.Results: FBS, PPBS, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL were more in females than male patients but the mean values were not significant statistically except FBS and total cholesterol. All the lipid parameters were elevated among uncontrolled diabetic patients compared to controlled diabetic patients which was statistically significant.Conclusions: Present study concluded that the blood glucose levels and lipid parameters were elevated among uncontrolled diabetics compared to controlled diabetics strongly depicting the co-relation between the glycemic levels and lipid abnormalities. Patients should be educated to monitor regularly and control blood glucose and lipid levels.
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    A study on awareness and disposal practices of unused and expired medicines by consumers
    (Medip Academy, 2020-04) D., Bhavika; Vaseem, Ayesha; C., Sunil Pal Singh
    Background: Hazards to the environment due to improper drug disposal practices is an issue of concern. The prescription drugs, disposed into trash /sewage, consequently enter into surface waters and contaminate even drinking water. In view of the potential hazards posed due to improper storage and disposal of medicines, evaluation of the awareness of the consumers and educating them about proper disposal methods is required. The aim of present study was to evaluate the awareness and practice of drug disposal among the population.Methods: A cross sectional, observational study was conducted at Rural Health Centre (RHTC) of Kamineni Academy of Medical Sciences and Research Centre with the patients visiting the RHTC as the study subjects. A predesigned questionnaire was used to evaluate the awareness and disposal practices of unused and expired medicines by the respondents.Results: On analysis it was observed that 80 (57%) of the respondents procure medicines from health care centre. A total of 97 (69%) respondents possess unused/leftover medicines at home, 54 (39%) of the respondents mentioned the reason to be due to self discontinuation. Among the class of drugs left unused antibiotics constituted 13%, antipyretics 6%, analgesics 6%. 49% of the respondents dispose unused medicines in domestic trash, 24% flush down toilet/sink. A majority of 121 (86%) opined that awareness must be made created.Conclusions: In present study it was observed that many of the respondents possessed leftover medicines and were unaware of the hazards of improper disposal of medicines. Thus, there is a need for proper educational and regulatory interventions.
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    Competency based assessment in pharmacology: implications of changed recommendations in viva voce and internal assessment
    (Medip Academy, 2020-04) Khilnani, Gurudas; Khilnani, Ajeet Kumar; Thaddanee, Rekha
    The competency based assessment (CBA) is an integral part of competency based medical education (CBME). It is important to discern the similarities and differences between CBME and traditional curriculum for developing effective implementation schedules and to identify opportunities for best use of the CBA in pharmacology training. CBA relies on assessment of core competencies and attitudes. The viva marks, to be decided at university level, are excluded from theory marks. An advantage of CBA is early entry of failed students into next phase of study. The areas of concern are, viva marks are included in practical marks further reducing ratio of practical to theory marks despite increase in total marks, and non-contribution of internal assessment marks to university marks for rank or grades. Multiple assessments using multiple tools in limited duration of 11 months would pose logistic problems and would require concerted efforts of faculty members for accomplishment.
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    A case report of drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome induced by dapsone
    (Medip Academy, 2020-04) A. R., Swathy; Dattatri, A. N.
    Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a distinct, severe, idiosyncratic reaction to a drug characterized by a prolonged latency period. It is followed by a variety of clinical manifestations, usually fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, eosinophilia, and a wide range of mild-to-severe systemic presentations. Among sulfonamides, Dapsone, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and sulfasalazine are the most common offending drugs. We report here a case of DRESS syndrome due to dapsone.
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    The safety and efficacy of oral Arborium plus, a herbal liquid formulation in the treatment of diabetic foot syndrome: an open label study
    (Medip Academy, 2020-04) Chalivendra, Pallavi; Shaik, Nurul Hameed; Balapalli, Hari Prasad; Parasaram, Murali Krishna; Bommadi, Bhavya; Ravanam, Sai Anjani; Attili, Subha
    Background: Diabetic foot ulcers are the most universal cause of non-traumatic amputations of the foot in developing countries. One of the treatment modalities is to improve the peripheral blood supply to the area of ulcer. To this purpose the study was done to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral Arborium plus (herbal liquid formulation) in the wound closure of diabetic foot patients.Methods: 50 patients were randomly assigned to either of the groups (each group 25 patients) to receive either the test drug (Arborium plus) at tertiary care teaching hospital, it was an open label prospective and interventional parallel group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Arborium plus in diabetic foot syndrome. The study participants were randomized into control and intervention groups. Base line measurements of vascular flow was ankle- brachial pressure index (ABPI) and wound size measurement.Results: The baseline characteristics of the patients age in years test and control group 68�.3 and 67�.4 respectively. Male/female in both groups was 21/4 and 22/3 respectively. Duration of diabetes in years 8.65�3 and 8.5�6 respectively. BMI was 25.11�15 and 24.75�85, duration of smoking (years) 17.3�5 and 19.5�.5 respectively in both groups. Among the test group who received the proprietary formulation of Arborium plus, there was a significant reduction in the wound size.Conclusions: Wound healing and ABPI improvements were observed with usage of Arborium plus suggest an improvement in peripheral vascular flow in diabetic foot subjects.
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    Reducing the risk of heart failure in diabetes mellitus: review of new therapeutics
    (Medip Academy, 2020-04) Godbole, Shreeharsh; Godbole, Shreerang
    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and heart failure (HF) are closely related: patients with diabetes have an increased risk of developing HF and those with HF are at higher risk of developing diabetes. When the two diseases are considered individually, HF has a much poorer prognosis than diabetes mellitus; therefore, treatment of HF is a priority in these group of patients. There are many drugs now available to achieve glycemic control in individuals with DM. However, as we enter an era of personalization in the management of DM, the next challenge will be the identification of therapeutic strategies that will not only achieve and maintain glycemic control, but that will also reverse existing complications. Given the high prevalence of HF in DM, there is a strong imperative to advance this field, with the view of identifying robust strategies that will not only improve long-term outcomes in subjects with DM and HF but also limit the likelihood of developing HF in the first place. Newer therapies like sodium- glucose transport protein- 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2 I) and sacubitril or valsartan have shown potential benefit for reducing the risk of heart failure in diabetic population. This review will summarize the new therapeutics to reduce the risk of HF in patients with DM.
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    Evaluation of the effects of donepezil in psychotic disorders using Swiss albino mice
    (Medip Academy, 2020-04) Tanwani, Hemant; Churihar, Ritesh; Pandit, Sameer
    Background: Schizophrenia as a psychotic disorder is currently treated by various antipsychotic drugs. A large group of patients still remain resistant to the treatment and present in the form of residual cognitive deficits. Donepezil has been advocated at various conferences and seminars for using it in schizophrenia patients. Donepezil is currently approved drug for Alzheimer's disease to improve cognition. Hence, we have tried to assess its role for psychotic models induced by methylphenidate in mice.Methods: Methylphenidate 5 mg/kg was given by intraperitoneal (i.p) route to induce psychosis in Swiss albino mice (n=6). Donepezil was given alone in a dose of 1 mg/kg and in combination with low dose haloperidol 0.1 mg/kg and groups were compared with haloperidol 0.2 mg/kg. Activity of donepezil was also assessed on the haloperidol induced catalepsy test. Statistical analysis was done with ANOVA followed by Bonferroni抯 test.Results: Methylphenidate successfully induced characteristic stereotypy behaviour in mice similar to amphetamine. Both donepezil 1 mg/kg and haloperidol 0.2 mg/kg showed significant reduction in stereotypy behaviour and there was no statistically significant difference between the two (p<0.05). Effects with donepezil were only slightly inferior to standard while it抯 combination (1 mg/kg with haloperidol 0.1 mg/kg) showed comparable results with the standard haloperidol. Donepezil had only marginally enhanced potential to induce catatonia which was statistically insignificant (p>0.05).Conclusions: Methylphenidate can be used successfully to induce psychosis in animals and donepezil may be a promising and potentially useful drug as add on therapy to routine antipsychotics.
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    In vitro study on the antioxidant activity of methanolic leaf extract of Carica papaya
    (Medip Academy, 2020-04) Aboobacker, Haseena K.; Valoth, Gopesh; Kizhedath, Sabeena
    Background: Newer drug research worldwide is now focusing on medicinal plants for ensuring health and vitality due to the seemingly safer side effect profile and abundance of plants in nature, compared to synthetic drugs. Antioxidants are vital in preventing free radical induced tissue damage. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Carica papaya using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH). Phytochemical tests proved the presence of bioactive ingredients in the extract.Methods: DPPH free radical assay, one of the most accurate methods for evaluating antioxidant activity, was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of leaves of C. papaya.Results: The methanolic leaf extract of C. papaya showed antioxidant property with free radical scavenging activity increasing with increase in concentration. The IC50 value of methanolic extract was 213.68 礸m/ml. Ascorbic acid was used as control.Conclusions: Oxidative stress has been linked to heart disease, cancer, immune deficiency. Antioxidants as suggested from various studies may reduce the risk of such diseases. The utility of C. papaya in the treatment of heart disease, cancer and immune deficiency will have to be proved by detailed evaluation of its pharmacological properties.
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    Twin pregnancy a complicating journey for both mothers and babies: elaborate review
    (Medip Academy, 2020-04) Shelke, Pallavi Sitaram; Jagtap, Pradnya Nilesh
    Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman. A multiple pregnancy involves more than one offspring, such as with twins. Pregnancy can occur by sexual intercourse or assisted reproductive technology. A pregnancy may end in a live birth, abortion, or miscarriage, though access to safe abortion care varies globally. Research shows that 10 percent to 15 percent of all singleton births may have started off as twins; often one is lost early in pregnancy in a phenomenon known as "vanishing twin syndrome." Multiple pregnancy occurs when two or more ova are fertilized to form dizygotic (non-identical) twins or a single fertilised egg divides to form monozygotic (identical) twins. In the U.S, about three in every 100 pregnant women give birth to twins or triplets, according to the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. And by many accounts, twin pregnancies are on the rise. This review provides a blessful information to understand what happening when expecting twins and also help to cope with pregnancy related complications and give twins the best start in life.
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    Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors: updated evidence on their efficacy and safety in patients with type-2 diabetes
    (Medip Academy, 2020-04) Gupta, Vipul; Khurana, Girish
    Management of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is challenging. The scope of existing therapies toward T2DM has transformed remarkably. These large assortments of therapies have produced evidence-based data. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT-2i) is the most recent class of oral anti-hyperglycemic agents. They are approved by Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. SGLT-2i has a unique mechanism of action and that lower glucose independent of insulin. They reduce renal tubular glucose reabsorption, thereby lowering blood glucose without stimulating the release of insulin. Additional advantages involve suitable effects on blood pressure and weight. According to guidelines of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/ the American College of Endocrinology 2016, SGLT-2i (in the form of canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin) is one of the acceptable alternatives to metformin as initial therapy towards T2DM. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin reduce the cardiovascular risk in comparison to placebo as the part of standard care. This review article focuses on the clinical trials published over the past year and specifically the metabolic aspect of SGLT-2i and the adverse effects related to SGLT-2 inhibitors.
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    A study of knowledge, attitude and practice on use of antibiotics and its resistance among the doctors and interns at urban tertiary care hospital: an interventional study
    (Medip Academy, 2020-04) Kalyani, Manjusha; Janagond, Anand; Koshy, Nimble; Cheriyan, Roshy; Keshannanvar, M. G.; Shalavadi, Mallappa; Mangannavar, Chandrashekhar V.
    Background: Infections due to resistant micro-organisms considerably increase the mortality rate, treatment cost, disease spread and duration of illness. The development of antibiotic resistance (AMR) is increasing steadily increasing over the last 10-15 years, which is a real threat to disease management. Many studies states that about 20-50% of antibiotic use unnecessary so decreasing the use of antibiotics is the first step to curb the AMR.Methods: A questionnaire based prospective interventional study among the doctors. Systemic random sampling was applied. The pre tested structured questionnaire was used. Data抯 were summarised in the excel sheet, analysed by proportions, percentages and other statistical methods like Student t test, Fisher test and Chi square test were used to check the association. The p>0.05 was considered as significant.Results: Out of 200 doctors, preliminary screening of 170 was included in the study and finally 156 participants were actively selected for analysis of results. Out of 156 participants, 55.1% were MBBS Intern and 44.9% were doctors. High significance (p=0.0001) were found between pre and post knowledge, attitude and practice of doctors.Conclusions: Further modes of studies have to perform to identify the determinants of attitude behaviour and motivation that lead people to use and misuse antibiotics. For effective outcome many more qualitative and quantitative studies are required. In addition, health care system should follow proper regulation and prescription policy as well as controls for prescription of antibiotic drugs.
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    Bio-equivalence study of two tilmicosin phosphate formulations (Micotil 300� and Cozina 300�) in broiler chickens
    (Medip Academy, 2020-04) Elkomy, Ashraf; Aboubakr, Mohamed
    Background: The present study was designed to assess the comparative bio-equivalence of Micotil 300� and Cozina 300� in healthy broiler chickens after oral administration of both products in a dose of 15 mg tilmicosin base/kg body wt.Methods: Twenty four broiler chickens were divided equally into two groups (12 chickens for each group). The first group was designed to study the pharmacokinetics of Micotil 300�, while the 2nd group was designed to study the pharmacokinetics of Cozina 300�. Each broiler chicken in both groups was orally administered with 15 mg tilmicosin/kg body wt. Blood samples were obtained from the wing vein and collected immediately before and at 0.08, 0.16, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 hours after a single oral administration.Results: The disposition kinetics of Micotil 300� and Cozina 300� following oral administration of 15 mg tilmicosin/kg body wt revealed that the maximum blood concentration [Cmax] were 1.73 and 1.67 ?g/ml and attained at [tmax] of 2.01 and 2.04 hours, respectively.Conclusions: Cozina 300� is bioequivalent to Micotil 300� since the ratios of Cmax, AUC0-24 andAUC0-? (T/R) were 0.96, 0.93 and 0.91 respectively. These are within the bio-equivalence acceptance range. Micotil 300� and Cozina 300� are therefore bioequivalent and interchangeable.
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    A cross sectional questionnaire based study on self medication practice of analgesics among MBBS students at Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka
    (Medip Academy, 2020-04) P., Shanmukananda; H., Shwetha; D. R., Veena; M., Poorvi
    Background: Self medication with analgesics is prevalent worldwide due to easy procurement of over the counter drugs. Present study was done to assess knowledge, attitude, practice and perception of self medication of analgesics among MBBS students at Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 5th term MBBS students of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Medical College, Bengaluru in November 2019. A pre-designed validated questionnaire was used to collect information on knowledge, attitude, practice and perception of self medication of analgesics. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics.Results: 83.3 % of 5th term MBBS students practiced self medication with analgesics. Majority of students had some knowledge on self medication with analgesics. Common reason for using analgesic self medication was headache (59.7%) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (90%) were commonly used analgesics. Analgesics were used for quick relief (73.3%) and source of information was from medical textbooks (61.6%). Students stopped taking analgesics after symptoms disappeared (75%). Students agreed that self medication is acceptable for medical students (63.3%) and medical license is required for better administration of drugs (51.3%).Conclusions: This study has found that self medication with analgesics was common among undergraduate medical students for minor illness. It is necessary to create awareness and educate students regarding dangers of analgesic self medication.
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    A pharmacoepidemiology study of local fungal infections in skin and venereal diseases outpatient department of a rural tertiary care hospital
    (Medip Academy, 2020-04) Bansal, Preety; Baishnab, Seema
    Background: Fungal infections of the skin were the 4th most common skin disease in 2010 affecting 984 million people. An estimated 20-25% of the world抯 population has some form of fungal infection. Dermatophytes are fungi that cause superficial infections of the skin, commonly referred to as tinea infections.Methods: This was a prospective and an observational study conducted from February 2018 to January 2019 in Dermatology Department. Prescriptions included all newly diagnosed patients with cutaneous fungal infection of both sex who attended dermatology OPD. Factors considered were sociodemographic parameters, the disease encountered and number of patients in each group and number of patients who received antifungal therapy (oral and topical) etc.Results: 1000 prescriptions were analysed of patients between 18 to 65 years of age with cutaneous fungal infections. There were a greater number of males (57.4%) than females (42.6%). The average number of antifungal drugs prescribed per prescription was 2.33. Majority of the patients were prescribed itraconazole (82.30%) followed by terbinafine (9.70%) and fluconazole (8.0%).Conclusions: The most common oral antifungal drug used was itraconazole. Ketoconazole and Terbinafine were the most commonly used topical agents respectively.
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    A retrospective study of antimicrobial usage in wound healing
    (Medip Academy, 2020-04) Valder, Bhavishya Keerthi Anna; G. K., Nalini; K., Shankara; P., Deepak; G. N., Sahana; V. N., Jayashree; Neelamma
    Background: Chronic wounds are responsible for increase in burden to healthcare systems. The evidence concerning effectiveness of antibiotic therapy or optimal regimens is insufficient. Patients with chronic wounds receive significantly more systemic and topical antibiotics. Current guidelines for antibiotic prescribing for such wounds are often based on expert opinion rather than scientific fact. As there is increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance, the relationships between antibiotic resistance and rationales for antibiotic therapy have to be determined. Current practice of antibiotic usage for chronic wounds and postoperative wounds in a tertiary care setting should be studied.Methods: Retrospective study was conducted from February 2017 to February 2018 using medical records of patients with wound admitted in surgical departments in HIMS, Hassan, Karnataka. The inpatient records were analysed, which includes duration of stay in the hospital, number of drugs/products per person, percentage of antibiotics prescribed, percentage of antibiotic injection prescribed, and other modalities used to treat wounds.Results: In present study, amongst 100 antimicrobial prescriptions, 26 females and 74 males. The most commonly prescribed parenteral antibiotic was ceftriaxone (58%), followed by metronidazole (56%). The average number of antibiotics per prescription was 2.8. The mean duration parenteral antibiotics given was 4.26 days during their hospital stay oral antibiotics were 5.18 days after the discharge from the hospital.Conclusions: The information generated shall be used to decide the policies to govern the prescription of antibiotics in the management of chronic wounds and post-operative wounds.
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    A retrospective study of adverse drug reactions in a tertiary care center
    (Medip Academy, 2020-04) L., Ankitha; H., Ramesh
    Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major concern in clinical practice. Reporting of ADRs either through health care professionals or the patients themselves is of utmost importance to give an accurate estimate of the prevalence, severity and preventability of ADRs. Present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of adverse drug reactions in a tertiary care hospital in Hubballi, Karnataka, India.Methods: This was a retrospective observational study, extending over 6 months (May 2019 to October 2019). A total of 124 cases comprising patients of either sex and age group ranging from 1month to 72 years were studied. The data was collected using CDSCO ADR reporting form. 揘aranjo抯 Assessment Scale� was used for causality assessment and severity assessment was done in accordance with 揌artwig and Siegel scale�.Results: The study showed majority of ADRs were from General Medicine department and affected skin and appendages (59%). Skin rashes 44 (31.7%) were found to be the most commonly reported ADRs most of them were with antimicrobials 67 (54%). After causality assessment 83 (66.9%) of the cases were classified as probable and 41 (33.1%) were classified as possible. Majority of serious ADRs were not preventable in our study.Conclusions: ADRs are a major cause of morbidity worldwide. Frequency of ADRs can be reduced by careful follow up and a robust hospital-based pharmacovigilance setup. Measures to improve detection and reporting of adverse drug reactions by all health care professionals is recommended.
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    An experimental study to evaluate the role of aspirin and metformin in prevention of depression in rats
    (Medip Academy, 2020-04) Abbas, Alisha; Kumar, Narendra; Singh, Sarvesh; Kumar, Rahul; Ahmad, Akhlaque; Nath, Rajendra; Dixit, Rakesh Kumar
    Background: Depression was seen to be associated with an increased level of inflammatory biomarkers along with the disturbance in the monoamine neurotransmitter system. Current therapies are mostly focussed on the neurotransmitters imbalance but due to increasing cases of treatment failure there is a need to shift our treatment focus to other potential therapies. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive role of aspirin and metformin in stress induced model of depression in wistar rats.Methods: Fifty four wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups as normal control, experimental control, aspirin (30 mg/kg, 60 mg/kg), metformin (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg), two combination groups and imipramine (15 mg/kg). Depression model was created by the induction of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for consecutive 28 days. Behavioural assessment was done by evaluating immobility time in forced swim test (FST) and sucrose preference ratio (SPR) in sucrose preference test. The data were analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) test using SPSS software. P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.Results: The CUMS led to an increase in immobility time and decrease in SPR. Aspirin and Metformin alone and their combinations showed statistically significant response in preventing the immobility time to increase (p<0.001) and SPR to decrease (p<0.001). However the response of Aspirin was comparable with Imipramine but the response of Metformin was not as significant as of Imipramine (p>0.05).Conclusions: Aspirin and metformin might have a potential role in the prevention of depression.
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    Effect of methonolic extract of Vitex negundo on haloperidol induced catalepsy in albino mice
    (Medip Academy, 2020-04) Kamlekar, Sandeep Kumar; Gupta, Sangita
    Background: Plants are being used in traditional medicine since history of mankind. The knowledge of these medicinal plants has accrued in the course of many centuries leading to medicinal systems in India such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. Objective: In the present study, we evaluated the anticataleptic efficacy of Vitex negundo, a polyherbal formulation in haloperidol induced catalepsy in mice.Methods: Five groups (n=6) of male albino mice were used in the study. Catalepsy was induced by i.p. administration of haloperidol (1 mg/kg). The degree of catalepsy (cataleptic score) was measured as the time the animal maintained an imposed posture. We compared the anticataleptic efficacy of Vitex negundo (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) with standard received Pheniramine maleate 10 mg/kg, i.p.Results: In vehicle treated animals, haloperidol (1 mg/kg. i.p.) produced the maximum catalepsy at 180 min (46.78�78 min). Standard treated as Pheniramine maleate 10 mg/kg, i.p. shows maximum at 120 min. 19.24�32. Test herb, i.p. Methanolic extract of Vitex negundo (50, 100, 200 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly potentiated haloperidol induced catalepsy at each time interval, in a dose dependent manner. At dose 50, 100 and 200mg/kg, extract of Vitex negundo (Linn.) roots showed maximum cataleptic score 12.34�78, 14.43�43 and 15.43�67 min, respectively at 120 minutes in haloperidol treated animals.Conclusions: The present study indicates that the methanolic extract of Vitex negundo reduces haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice.