Biotechnology Journal International

Chief Editors: Prof. Viroj Wiwanitkit, Prof. Marek Malecki, Prof. Yifan Dai and Prof. Kuo-Kau Lee
ISSN: 2456-7051

Frequency: Quarterly

Language: English

Open Access Peer-reviewed journal

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Now showing 1 - 20 of 414
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    Extended-Spectrum Beta-lactamase and Metallo-beta-lactamase Production among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains from Urine of Pregnant Women in Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
    (Sciencedomain International, 2023-08) Uzochukwu, O. V.; Ijeoma, O. E.; Segun, O. S.; Jeff, N. O.; Odochi, U. D.; Nwadimkpa, E. B.
    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from pregnant women attending Mater Misericordia Hospital Afikpo, Ebonyi state, Nigeria. Study Design: This is a laboratory based prospective study carried out on pregnant women suspected of having urinary tract infection and was requested to undergo diagnosis at microbiology laboratory of the hospital. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria from October, 2022 to January, 2023. Methodology: Clean-catch midstream urine samples were collected from 206 pregnant women suspected of having urinary tract infection and were requested to undergo medical diagnosis at microbiology laboratory of the hospital. The urine samples were processed following standard microbiological procedure. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined using the disc diffusion method, while ESBL phenotypes were determine by the Double-Disc Synergy Test (DDST). Disc potentiation test was performed to check for MBL production. Results: Out of the 206 urine samples processed, 24 (11.7 %) E. coli and 12 (5.8 %) K. pneumoniae were isolated. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates recorded a 100 % resistance with Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid and Cotrimoxazole. The Gram-negative isolates showed a high sensitivity of 100 % to Netilmicin, Meropenem and Ofloxacin. Overall, 35 (97.2 %) multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed of the bacteria isolates. A total of 9 (37.5 %) E. coli and 4 (33.3 %) K. pneumoniae was found positive for ESBL production whereas, 5 (20.8 %) E. coli and 2 (16.7 %) K. pneumoniae were MBL positive. Conclusion: The level of drug resistance in this study underscores the need for regular surveillance for effective management of urinary tract infection in pregnancy.
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    Effect of Cyanobacterial Combinations on Peanut Yield
    (Sciencedomain International, 2023-08) Salem, G. M.; Shaheen, A. A. E.; Ghazal, M. F.
    The characteristics of two cyanobacterial strains, Anabaena oryzae and Nostoc muscorum, were studied in order to use them as biofertilizers in a field experiment conducted in the two winter seasons of 2021 and 2022 at the Ismailia Agricultural Research Center Station to study the effect of both strains on peanut plant in sandy soil. Cyanobacterial strains were used individually by coating seed, soil drench, and foliar applications, as well as mixed applications of two strains in various ways. Both cyanobacterial strains morphological examination revealed that they both have heterocysts, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in their culture filtrate, and they were able to produce chlorophyll a and phosphatase enzymes. The results of an agricultural experiment showed that using Nostoc muscorum and Anabaena oryzae separately had a positive effect on peanut plants in a variety of applications, but combining both of these applications with 75% nitrogen increased the growth traits, nutrient contents, and soil biological activities in both peanut plants and their rhizosphere soil. The soil drench treatment with A. oryzae and Nostoc muscorum plus 75% nitrogen produced the highest growth results and peanut yields in a single application. The A. oryzae Soil Drench Application (S) + N. muscorum Foliar Application (F) with 75% N reported the best outcomes in mixed treatments. However, compared to single applications, all blended applications displayed better growth and yield characteristics. The results of the study suggest that employing cyanobacteria in a mixed application will enhance its advantages over a single use.
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    Evaluation of Total Hydrocarbon Contents in the Leaves of Selected Crops Grown on Crude Oil Polluted Agricultural Soil
    (Sciencedomain International, 2023-08) Madubuike, M. N.; Ogbulie, T. E.; Unegbu, C. A.; Johnson, J. D.; Ibe, C. E.
    Aim: The Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in the leaves of three edible plants (Allium cepa, Telfairia occidentalis and Zea mays) grown on soil polluted with 100 ml of crude oil were examined. Study Design: This experiment was conducted in two groups where the soil samples were polluted before planting (PB) and polluted 2 weeks after planting (PA). Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO), Imo State, Nigeria, within a period of 4 weeks based on each group’s pollution time. Methodology: The tests for total hydrocarbon content (THC) were analyzed at different wavelengths for polluted soil and leaf samples using UV-Vis spectrophotometric method. Soil THC tests were determined on days 0, 14 and 28 respectively while THC tests on leaves of study plants were assessed on day 14 and 28. Results: The total hydrocarbon content values of the unpolluted soil (UPS) and the non-planted polluted soil (PS) subjected to this analysis on day zero were (UPS = 96.38 mg/kg; PS = 1082.80 mg/kg). However, results obtained on day 14 and 28 showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the unpolluted soil sample (UPS) and all the planted polluted soil for Telfairia occidentalis (TOPB, TOPA), Allium cepa (ACPB, ACPA), Zea mays (ZMPB, ZMPA) as well as, the non-planted polluted soil (PS). For the leaf samples, TOPB had the highest THC value of 14.47mg/kg and 36.73 mg/kg for day 14 and 28 respectively while ZMPB had the lowest value of 5.38mg/kg at day 14 and ZMPA, the least THC value of 7.76mg/kg at day 28. Conclusion: Based on the varying THC levels observed in the leaves of crops used for this study; it was connoted that, bioaccumulation of hydrocarbons depends on the plants phytoremediation capability and the mode of pollution as observed in TOPB.
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    Effect of Gravidity on Biochemical Parameters in Normotensive and Hypertensive 3rd Trimester Pregnant Women
    (Sciencedomain International, 2022-04) Akinfolarin, T. T. O.-.; Akinfolarin, O. M.; Maduagwu, M. C.; Amadi, C. F.
    Background: Pregnancy is a period in which a woman carries one or more foetus in her uterus. It is typically divided into three trimesters based on gestational age which is measured in weeks and months. Gravidity is referred to the number of times a woman has been pregnant. Pregnancy comes with several changes in metabolism, resulting to changes biochemical markers in pregnant women, some of which to certain extent may pose health risks in those with existing health conditions such as high blood pressure. The study of these changes becomes necessary to determine and arrest the risks should they exist during pregnancy. Aim: The study was aimed at evaluating the effects of gravidity on biochemical markers in normotensive and hypertensive 3rd trimester pregnant women. Materials and Methods: At Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 women. The consenting patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to one of two groups: normotensive (50 normotensive pregnant women at their third trimester) or hypertensive (50 hypertensive pregnant women at their third trimester) (HPW2T). The subjects in each group were subsequently split into three categories depending on gravidity: primigravida (one pregnancy), multigravida (two or more), and grand multigravida (five or more). For the assessment of TC, TG, HDL, and LDL, fasting blood samples were taken using the venepuncture technique. AIP, CR-I, CR-II, AC, and APoB/APoA1) biochemical indices were computed quantitatively. At a p<0.05, the data were examined using ANOVA and the Tukey comparison test. Result: There was no significant difference in the mean levels of the biochemical parameters among the gravidity groups in the normotensive group except for LDL and APoB levels that was significantly higher, p<0.05. The hypertensive group had no significant difference in the mean levels of all studied parameters among the gravidity group, p>0.05.. Conclusion: In this study conducted at Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, gravidity had no impact on most biochemical markers in normotensive and hypertensive pregnant women at their third trimester.
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    Effect of Gravidity on Cardiovascular Markers in Normotensive Pregnant Women
    (Sciencedomain International, 2022-04) Oladapo-Akinfolarin, T. T.; Akinfolarin, O. M.; Maduagwu, M. C.; Aleruchi-Didia, T. N.
    Gravidity, or the number of pregnancies a woman has had, is linked to a number of biochemical alterations, including changes in cardiovascular parameters. These modifications may increase the likelihood of cardiovascular disease in this population. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect gravidity has on some cardiovascular markers among normotensive pregnant women. A cross-sectional study of 100 women of reproductive age was carried out at Rivers State University and Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, the subjects were chosen at random for the study. Blood samples were taken and tested for total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, uric acid, and Apolipoprotein A1 and B. Apolipoprotein A1 and B were all measured in blood samples for biochemical analysis. The levels of low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein were determined. Graph Pad Prism Version was used to analyze the data from the study. Result gotten from the study showed that Gravidity had no significant effect on biochemical parameters (TC, TG, UA, LDL, Apo A1, Apo B, CRP, and VLDL) in pregnant women (P>0.05), but there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in HDL levels among the group; 0.87 ± 0.21 (1-2), 0.93 ± 0.21 (3-4), 0.86 ± 0.12(5-6) and 1.30 ± 0.00 for (7-8). The effect of gravidity (1-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-8) on HDL was shown to be significant for ANOVA and Turkey post hoc multiple comparison test; (1-2 vs 7-8) (P= 0.0204) and (5-6 vs 7-8) (P= 0.0250).. This study demonstrated that gravidity had little or no effect on the biochemical parameters but increases the HDL cholesterol level in normotensive pregnant women.
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    Regulating Function of Exogenous Salicylic Acid on Sugar Metabolism in Tomato Seedlings
    (Sciencedomain International, 2022-04) Zhao, B.- zhen; Wu, Z.- fen; Peng, W.- tong; Zheng, C.- xiang; Cui, N.
    Aims: SA (Salicylic acid) is a key regulator for sugar metabolic pathway, but the regulating function on sugar metabolism in tomato seedlings is imperfect. In this study, tomato seedlings were sprayed with SA, and then soluble sugar contents, enzyme related to sugar metabolism levels, gene expressions were determined. Study Design: In order to analyze the mechanism of SA in sugar metabolic pathway, tomato seedlings were sprayed with SA, and then soluble sugar contents, enzyme related to sugar metabolism levels, gene expressions were determined. Place and Duration of Study: College of Biological Science and Technology, between December 2021 and May 2022. Methodology: The expressions of genes related to sugar metabolism in tomato were measured by qRT-PCR. The contents of soluble sugar in tomato seedings were measured with HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography). Results: The sugar metabolism in tomato seedlings was affected by SA treatment for 6 h. The contents of fructose, glucose and sucrose were improved in tomato seedlings by SA treatment. Between 6 to 24 h, enzymatic activities of SlAI, SlNI and SlSS were higher than those in controls, while there was little change in enzyme activity of SISPS. Conclusion: The contents of soluble sugar, enzyme activities related to sugar metabolism had changed considerably by SA treatment. Especially from 6 h to 24 h after SA treatment, the contents of fructose and glucose were significantly higher than those of the control group, and the changes of sugar contents were mainly related to the increases of enzyme activities of AI, NI and SS, suggesting that SA treatment mainly affected the activities of SlAI, SlNI and SlSS to promote the accumulations of soluble sugars.
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    Effects of Corona Pandemic on Global Environment and Economy
    (Sciencedomain International, 2022-01) Gaurav, N.; Thapa, A.; Ali, Y.; Kulshrestha, A.; Saini, N.; Joshi, P. K.; Rawat, H.; Kaur, A.; Kumar, P.
    The COVID-19 pandemic is draw into concern as the most reproving international fitness tragedy of the century since December 2019, the era of Second World War. A new transmissible respiratory disease comes in existence in Wuhan, Hubei province, China and the World Health Organization named it as COVID-19 (corona virus disease 2019). For the quarter of 2020 the corona virus epidemic has swamp the international locations of the sector and changed the pace, material and nature of our lives. In this evaluation accompanying, we inspect some of the various social, environmental and economic issues influenced by COVID-19. The COVID-19 epidemic has ended in over 4.3 million confirmed instances and over 290,000 deaths globally. The Indian economy as with the global economy, was faced with multiple curtailment too when the pandemic emerged. Advance estimation recommend that the Indian economy is anticipate to witness real GDP augmentation of 9.2 per cent in 2021-22 after reducing in 2020-21. This implicit that overall economic activity has retrieve past the pre-epidemic levels. Social spacing, self-isolation and travel diminution have led to a less staff throughout all capitalism or economic sectors, and because of that many jobs to be bygone. Schools have closed down, and there is requirement for artefacts and products has reduced. In contrast, there requirement for medical essentials has significantly increases. In reaction to this global epidemic, we summarize the effect of COVID-19 on socio-economic condition on individual factors of the world economy and environment.
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    Ameliorative Effect of Vitamin E on Paraquat Induced Haematological Disorder in Male Albino Rats
    (Sciencedomain International, 2022-04) Nnamdi, O. B.; Nyebuchi, J.; Collins, A. O.; Udu, Z. L.
    Paraquat is a controversial herbicide that can increase reactive oxygen species levels by undergoing redox cycling and producing reactive oxygen species such superoxide anion. Vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin that modulates oxidation processes in the body due to its particular antioxidant activity. It is a powerful chain-breaking antioxidant that limits the synthesis of reactive oxygen species molecules. The goal of the study was to see if vitamin E had a short-term therapeutic impact on paraquat-induced male albino rats. For the experiment, 200 male albino rats were employed. The 200 rats were separated into four primary groups (A, B, C, and D), each of which included 50 rats and was then subdivided into two subgroups, each with 25 rats. The "A" group was not induced paraquat, but the "B," "C," and "D" groups were induced 0.02g, 0.04g, and 0.06g of paraquat, respectively. The "A" group was divided into two subgroups: "A0" and "AVE," which represented the subgroups that were not given Vit E and those who were given Vit E (500 mg) respectively. This design was similar for groups "B," "C," and "D." The frequency of paraquat introduction was fortnightly for three months, then followed by vitamin E treatment weekly for two month. After the treatment with Vit E, the rats were sacrificed and blood was taken to analyze several hematological parameters (Hemoglobin concentration [Hb], Packed Cell volume [PCV], Total White blood cell count [T-WBC], Neutrophils and Lymphocytes). These hematological parameters differed significantly across the "Ao," "Bo," "Co," and "Do" groups, at p-value < 0.05. This was equally true for the "Ave," "Bve," "Cve," and "Dve," groups at p-value < 0.05. The findings also revealed that intra-group comparisons of Hb, PCV levels between B0 vs Bve, C0 vs Cve, and D0 vs Dve were significant different, p-value<0.05 whereas WBC, neutrophils and lymphocytes were not p-value>0.05. This study has shown that PQ insult on anaemia indicators in rats can be corrected by a weekly administration of the vitamin.
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    Influence of Spent Lubricating Oil Spiked Compost on Microbial Counts and Hydrocarbon Degradation Rate in Soils
    (Sciencedomain International, 2023-08) Ntekpe, M. E.; Ekpo, M. A.; Ndubuisi-Nnaji, U. U.; Mbong, E. O.; Ntino, E.
    This study evaluated the influence of organic fertilizers produced from spent lubricating oil (SLO) spiked aerobic composting technique on hydrocarbon degradation rate in soils. The compost windrows (Ft2 and Ft4), consisting of kitchen and agricultural wastes, were spiked with varying concentrations (2% and 4%) of SLO. The resultant organic fertilizers were employed as amendment in pollution simulated potted soils laid out in a complete randomized block design with three replications for 90 days. Results revealed higher counts of hydrocarbon utilizing microbes (HUB: 4.2±0.02×104cfu/g in Ft2, 3.0±0.02×104cfu/g in Ft4; HUF: 3.9±0.2×104cfu/g in Ft2, 2.5±0.02×104cfu/g in Ft4) in spiked compost compared to the control, Ft0 (HUB: 7.9±0.02×103cfu/g; HUF: 6.0±0.2×103cfu/g). Mean count in amended soils reflected a dose-dependent increase which followed the trend: Ft2 ? Ft0 ? Ft4 for the 5% (3.7×108 cfu/g), 10% (9.2×107 cfu/g) and 15% (6.9×107 cfu/g) levels of fertilizer treatments respectively. There was a significant (P<0.05) reduction in the TPH content of soils after 90days treatment with organic fertilizers. Generally, remediation efficiency followed the order: Ft2 ? Ft0 ? Ft4, with the highest (11.51%) achieved at 5% Ft2 application. Spiking technique was responsible for the higher counts of hydrocarbon utilizing microbes and enhanced bioremediation associated with the use of fertilizers Ft2.
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    Immunogenicity Studies of Various Experimental Vaccines in Chickens
    (Sciencedomain International, 2023-06) Vaillant, A. J.; Akpaka, P. E.
    In this paper, the main objective was to raise chickens’ antibodies against three crucial public health microorganisms: the human immunodeficiency virus-1, Salmonella spp, and Staphylococcus aureus. Immunogens were prepared from the said microorganisms. Chickens were vaccinated either orally or intramuscularly. After a booster immunization, mostly eggs were collected and assess for the presence of specific antibodies. The most important results were the production of a large amount of anti-HIV antibodies in chicken’s eggs, and also the synthesis of anti-protein a antibodies with the ability to inhibit the growth of S. aureus in vitro and to serve as anti-anti-idiotypic antibodies with the capacity of neutralizing the original antigen. Enzyme- linked immune absorbent assays detected the presence of these antibodies as anti-Salmonella antibodies that were critical in reducing the bacterial load in the stomach and caeca compared with a control group. The vaccines were effective and safe, but more laboratory work, and economics have to be carried out to start a human trial.
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    A Consortium of Soil Bacteria Mediates the Partial Replacement of Mineral Fertilizer for Sustainable Grapevine Cultivation in Sandy Soil
    (Sciencedomain International, 2023-02) El-Wafa, T. S. A.; Abo-Koura, H. A.; Abdelaziz, M. E.; Saad, M. M.
    The demand for chemical fertilizers in agriculture has increased to deal with the present global population increase. However, the excessive use of chemical fertilizers can be reduced by applying biofertilizers as an eco-friendly tool. Plant growth-promoting rizobacteria (PGPR) has an essential need in terms of fertilizer savings and promoting plant yield. Here, we study the effect of using three (PGPR) bacterial strains “Bacillus nakamurai MSRH1, Bacillus pacificus MSRH3, Paenibacillus polymyxa MSRH5”, integrated with chemical fertilizers (40, 60, 80, 100% need based NPK) on vegetative growth, yield production, and quality of table grapes ‘Flam Seedless’ grown in sand soil during two successive seasons of 2020 and 2021, with a preliminary trial season in 2019. Our results show that amending grapes with NPK in combination with the consortium of three strains led to significant improvement in colonized vines compared to a single application of 100% NPK. Results showed that bacterial consortium combined with 80% and 60% NPK mineral fertilizer had more positive effects than un-inoculated vines in growth parameters, cluster characteristics, yield/vine and berry quality in the two growing seasons. Besides, N, P and K concentrations of leaf petiole, total leaf chlorophyll content, and carbohydrates in canes were significantly enhanced by bacteria consortium with 80% and 60% PK chemical fertilizers. PGPR significantly increased total bacterial count, N2-fixing, P- solubilizing and K-solubilizing bacteria in soil treated with the three strains of bacteria plus mineral fertilizer. In addition, dehydrogenase and phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere soil were also increased in treatments inoculated with strains plus mineral fertilizer. The field study results showed that PGPR approach has potential and can be considered as a crop management strategy to increase the yield and quality of grapes, reduce chemical fertilization and subsequent environmental pollution, and could be useful in terms of sustainable production.
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    Optimization of Growth Parameters for Enhancing the Production of Biosurfactants from Pediococcus pentosaceus S-2
    (Sciencedomain International, 2023-04) Kaundal, T.; Sharma, A.; Batra, N.
    Numerous Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been found to be capable of synthesizing surface-active compounds i.e biosurfactants. These are amphiphilic compounds produced by microorganisms on their cell surface or secreted extracellularly that have a tendency to reduce surface and interfacial tension. In the present study, different process parameters including nitrogen and carbon source, pH, temperature, aeration and agitation were optimized to maximize the production of biosurfactants from Pediococcus pentosaceus S-2. Xylose (1.5%) and yeast extract (1.5%) act as better carbon and nitrogen sources respectively for the production of biosurfactants. Maximum biosurfactant yield was observed at pH 6, a temperature of 35o C, an agitation rate of 200 rpm and with inoculum size of 3%. The high yield of biosurfactants produced from Pediococcus pentosaceus S-2 by utilizing media supplemented with whey under optimized conditions.
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    Production of Soft Bloomy Rind Cheese with Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Cameroon’s Cow Milk
    (Sciencedomain International, 2023-06) Tchikoua, R.; Djoufack, R. A. N.; Elouti, R. B. O.; Ngang, J. J. E.
    The changing of the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from one locality and another is one of the main reasons of the organoleptic and physicochemical differences encountered in the same class of cheese. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of LAB isolated from cow's milk produced locally in Cameroon on the organoleptic and physicochemical quality of soft cheese with bloomy rind. To this effect, 05 LAB (IS1, IS2, IS3, IS4 and IS5) were isolated to fresh milk and selected after macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical characterizations. After tests of acidification, fermentation type, compatibility between LAB and LAB concentration on milk coagulation, the combined IS1-IS4-IS5 and IS2-IS3-IS5 were retained to produce 02 soft cheeses with bloomy rind namely respectively FROCAM 145 and FROCAM 235. When used at concentrations of 3×107 CFU/mL, these combined LAB coagulate fresh renneted milk after 3 hours at 26°C. During the production of FROCAM 145, the combined IS1-IS4-IS5 resulted in a firm, moist curd and a pH reduction of 14 and 15% respectively after the milk maturation and ripening of FROCAM 145. This cheese recorded 100% mould recovery, with protein, lipid and calcium content of 6.7, 62.2 and 0.1% respectively. On the other hand, during the production of FROCAM 235, the combined IS2-IS3-IS5 resulted in a dry and crumbly curd. The pH recorded with this combined LAB after maturation of the milk and ripening of FROCAM 235 is 12 and 17% respectively. The FROCAM 235 recorded a low mould recovery estimated at 20% and a protein, lipid and calcium content of 7.8, 65.1 and 0.3% respectively. From a microbiological point of view, FROCAM 145 and FROCAM 235 did not record any contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and Staphylococci. The sensory analysis shows that FROCAM 145 was more appreciated than FROCAM 235 with scores of 0.74 and 0.24 respectively. In view of these results, the IS1-IS4-IS5 combinations isolated from Cameroonian milks present a certain technological interest in the transformation of milk into cheese.
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    Isolation and Identification of Fungal Strains from Fresh and Smoked Fish from the Sassandra River in Côte d’Ivoire
    (Sciencedomain International, 2023-06) Isaac, F. F. S.; Ibourahema, C.; Athanase, K. K.; Clément, K. K.; Ibrahim, K.
    Introduction: Fresh and smoked fish are widely consumed in Côte d'Ivoire as everywhere in West Africa. However, these foodstuffs, due to certain processing conditions, are likely to be contaminated by molds that produce dangerous mycotoxins. Objective: This study aimed to isolate and identify fungal strains contaminating fresh and smoked fish from the Sassandra River in Côte d'Ivoire. Place and Date of the Study: Sampling was carried out in various processing sites around the Sassandra River, particularly in the towns of Soubré and Guessabo. The microbiological analysis was carried out at Jean Lorougnon Guédé University in Daloa (Ivory Coast). Methods: A total of 108 samples of fresh and smoked fish were collected. Isolation and purification of fungal strains were carried out on Sabouraud medium with chloramphenicol. The identification of isolated strains was made on the basis of morphological and cultural criteria. Results: A total of 126 fungal strains were isolated, including 87 from the Guessabo samples and 39 from the Soubré samples from 54 fresh fish and 54 smoked fish. The predominant species were Aspergillus of the Glaucus group (39%), Aspergillus niger (36%) and Penicillium sp. (25%). Conclusion: This study shows that fresh and smoked fish from the Sassandra River in Côte d'Ivoire are contaminated by several strains of molds, some of which produce mycotoxins that can cause illness in consumers depending on their concentrations. It would therefore be appropriate to improve processing techniques.
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    Structural and Rheological Properties of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Some Lactic Acid Bacterial Strains Isolated from Palm Wine
    (Sciencedomain International, 2023-04) Adamu-Governor, O. L.; Shittu, T. A.; Afolabi, O. R.; Elijah, A. I.; Opara, C. N.; Uzochukwu, S. V. A
    Aims: This study evaluated the physical, chemical and rheological properties of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from palm wine. Materials and Methods: EPSs from palm wine LAB strains were produced on 6% sucrose broth, purified and freeze-dried prior to analyses. Molecular weights (MW), rheological and structural composition (functional groups) of the EPSs were determined using standard methods and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results: The average MW of the EPSs ranged from 2.02×106 to 6.53×106 Da while the flow index (n) values ranged from 0.03-3.13 at 0.2%, 0.06-1.51 at 0.4%, 0.38 - 1.85 at 0.6%, 0.14 - 2.26 at 0.8% and 0.55 - 6.42 at 1% concentrations at elevated temperatures for EPS solutions from the ten LAB species. The FTIR spectrum revealed prominent peaks of various groups of OH (3420 cm-1) and CH3 bending (2090 cm-1) in all the EPSs corresponding to both hydroxyl and amine groups, and aliphatic C-H bonds, respectively. EPS synthesized by Leuconostoc lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum showed weak absorption peaks (1148 – 1145 cm-1) indicating the C-O-C and C-O bonds, while absorption peaks of Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (1267 – 1253 cm-1) indicated O- acetyl ester and other non-sugar components. Conclusions: The FTIR spectra, rheological properties and molecular weight of EPSs synthesized by the ten LAB strains indicated potentials that could be exploited in different industrial applications, and as stabilizers in food industries
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    Effects of Aqueous Seed Extracts of Sphenostylis stenocarpa on the Reproductive Indices of Male Rats
    (Sciencedomain International, 2023-02) Ogbuke E. F.; Oboho D. E.; Ekpo N. D.; Mbong E. O.; Nelson A. U.; Udo I. J.; Etukudo N. I.; Ejere V. C.
    Effects of aqueous seed extracts of Sphenostylis stenocarpa on the reproductive indices of male rats were investigated. A total of 104 adult rats were used for the experiment, and were divided into 4 groups (group A – D) and replicated in triplicate. Group A served as the normal control, while groups B, C and D received three graded doses (800mg/kg, 1200mg/kg and 1600mg/kg) of the extracts, respectively, by oral intubation. The gonad characteristics, sperm parameters and hormonal analyses of the male rats were determined using standard procedures. These were ascertained prior to the commencement of treatment, and on weekly basis. Data were analyzed statistically using SPSS and R software at 95% confidence interval. An overall dose and time dependent showed significant differences in the mean weekly gonad characteristics of the male rats in the treatment groups when compared with the control. There was a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the body weights of the male rats, but a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the testes weights, gonad somatic index, sperm count and sperm motility in the rats. The gonadal hormone testosterone, responded to the plant extracts, while follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones were largely undetected. There were significant increases in the testosterone levels of all the treated rats. Conclusively, aqueous seed extracts of Sphenostylis stenocarpa seems to possess ability to enhance reproductive health in male rats.
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    Network-based Toxicogenomics Approach to Unraveling the Influence of Lead and Cadmium Mixture on the Development and Progression of Hypertension
    (Sciencedomain International, 2023-04) Olukunle, O. F.; Omoboyede, V.
    Heavy metals, generally characterized by high densities and atomic weights, are ubiquitous in the environment and are a public health concern due to the several health issues they pose to humans. Of all heavy metals, lead and cadmium among others are known to be capable of inducing multiple health effects even at a low rate of exposure. Hypertension (HYP), a major cause of death and a risk factor for other cardiovascular diseases, is known to be caused by both lead and cadmium. While the mechanism underlying the development of HYP induced by independent exposure to lead and cadmium has been well studied, the mechanism underlying the induction and progression of HYP upon lead and cadmium co-exposure remains mildly explored. Hence, this study aimed to elucidate the mechanism using a toxicogenomic approach. The set of genes affected by both heavy metals was identified using the comparative toxicogenomics database (CTD) while HYP targets were retrieved from the Gene Cards database. The shared genes between the heavy metals and the disease were identified and subjected to further analysis. The results of our analysis revealed the signaling pathways that are dysregulated by lead and cadmium co-exposure while oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction were revealed as processes pertinent to the induction and progression of HYP by lead and cadmium co-exposure. Biomarkers that could be used for prognosis evaluation were also identified. Ultimately, this study supports and advances the growing body of finding on the roles played by lead and cadmium co-exposure in inducing HYP.
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    Synergetic Influence of Some Tropical Leaf Meals and Garlic on the Haemato-biochemical Parameters and Antioxidant Activities of Weaner Pigs
    (Sciencedomain International, 2023-06) Adegbenro, M.; Ayeni, A. O.; Olasunkanmi, M. O.; Olabanji, O. O.; Ajayi, F. E.; Oladayo, T. O.; Olaleye, O. J.; Agbede, J. O.
    Aim: This experiment was designed to study the effects of using garlic-composite leaf meals produced from four (4) different leaves and garlic: bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), scent leaf (Ocimum gatissimum), Neem leaf (Azadirachta indica), Moringa leaf (Moringa oleifera) and Garlic (Allium sativum) as a premix in the diets of growing pigs. The leaves and garlic were air dried, milled and sieved separately. Thereafter the leaves and garlic were mixed in the ratio of 4 (Vernonia amygdalina): 3 (Moringa oleifera): 1 (Ocimum gatissimum): 1 (Azadirachta indica) and 1 (Allium sativum) to produce the garlic-composite tropical leaf meals. Individual leaves and their composite mix were analyzed for proximate, mineral, antioxidant and the phytochemical components of the leaves were determined using GCMS and other standard methods. Methodology: Eighteen large white weaner-pigs of eight weeks were allocated in a completely randomized design for this experiment comprising three treatments and three replicates with two pigs per replicate. The average weight of the pigs were 13 kg. Basal diet were formulated and subdivided into three portions in which garlic-composite leaf meals were fed at 0g/kg, 10g/kg, and 20g/kg were used as an additives to the diets of weaner pigs and the diets were designated as I, II and III respectively. The pigs were then assigned to these 3 dietary treatments which were fed to the pigs at 5% of their body weight for 12 weeks experimental period. Water was supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period. All data were subjected to analysis of variance. Results: Dietary inclusion of GCLM on haematology, serum biochemistry indices and antioxidants significantly (P<0.05) affected the Packed Cell Volume (%), Mean Corpuscular Volume (fl) Lymphocytes (%), Granulocytes (%), Alanine aminotransferase (IU/L), Aspartate aminotransferase (IU/L), Total Protein (g/l) and catalase (Ku) of the experimental pigs. Conclusions: It could be concluded within the limit of this study, that garlic-composite leaf meals had high nutrient potentials for pigs and could completely help growing pigs to improve in body weight as the composite leaf meals increases in pig diets.
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    Optimization of Spirulina’s Phycocyanin Extraction Yield Using Response Surface Method
    (Sciencedomain International, 2023-02) Nhat, T. P.; Trinh-Dang, M.
    Besides cultivation, extraction is also a critical stage in enhancing the yield of phycocyanin production - a highly valuable compound from Spirulina biomass. In this study, the combined effect of three important variables in the ultrasonic-assisted extraction process on phycocyanin extraction yield, namely extraction temperature, sonication time, and solvent pH were investigated through a central composite design experiment. Furthermore, the response surface method was applied in order to define an optimal condition to achieve the highest extraction yield. The results showed that when temperature ranged from 35ºC to 45ºC, sonication time from 20 to 50 minutes, and solvent pH from 6 to 8, the average yield of 30.135±1.552 mg/g was obtained with an average purity of 0.871±0.043. A regression model was also successfully developed, which allowed a good prediction of extraction yield based on the three mentioned variables. On the other hand, an optimal condition for extraction was also proposed with sonication time = 43.57 minutes, extraction temperature = 37.6oC, and solvent pH = 6.7. These results were practically valuable for the improvement of phycocyanin extraction from Spirulina biomass
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    Evaluating Bioremediation Potentials of Fungi Species (Alternaria Sp., Aspergillus Sp. and Fusarium Sp.) on Heavy Metals from Plausible Industrial Effluent Discharges in Mmiri Ele Stream in Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria
    (Sciencedomain International, 2023-02) nyeka, O. V.; Nwuke, C.
    The greatest challenge of man today is to deal with metal pollution problems because unlike organic compounds which are decomposed naturally, heavy metals tend to persist on the aquatic environment, hence get accumulated at different sensitive sites. Given the growth in environmental awareness, emphasis is given on this exploration of environment friendly ways for decontamination procedures. Attention has been drawn to bioremediation which is a good alternative to conventional remediation technologies. The preference for it is based on the fact that it is of low cost, and generates non-toxic by products. Microorganisms have acquired a variety of mechanisms to adapt themselves to the toxicity of heavy metals. The results obtained from the bioremediation of cadmium, chromium and copper in both the water samples and sediment samples using Alternaria sp, Aspergillus sp and Fusarum sp, show that there is a significant decrease in the quantities of cadmium, chromium and copper in both the water samples and sediment samples upon treatments with the selected microorganisms. The result of the bioremediation of chromium shows a significant decrease in the amount of chromium in the sample from the mean value of 0.423 for pre-remediation treatment to 0.08 for post remediation treatment. There was also a reasonable decrease in the amount of copper metal in the water sample from 0.193 to 0.092. The post bioremediation of cadmium in sediment sample shows a significant decrease in the amount of cadmium from 0.2430 to 0.1880, tending towards the value of the control. The bioremediation of the heavy metals significantly reduced the amount of the heavy metals present in the polluted environment. Hence, it can be said that under suitable environmental and biochemical conditions, microorganisms can be used in the remediation of the heavy metals present in a heavy metal polluted environment.